Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 7, 2019

Exposure to environmental toxicants and young children’s cognitive and social development

  • Alexandra N. Davis EMAIL logo , Gustavo Carlo , Zehra Gulseven , Francisco Palermo , Chung-Ho Lin , Susan C. Nagel , Danh C. Vu , Phuc H. Vo , Thi L. Ho and Jane A. McElroy



Understanding the role of environmental toxicant exposure on children’s development is an important area of inquiry in order to better understand contextual factors that shape development and ultimately school readiness among young children. There is evidence suggesting negative links between exposure to environmental toxicants and negative physical health outcomes (i.e. asthma, allergies) in children. However, research on children’s exposure to environmental toxicants and other developmental outcomes (cognitive, socioemotional) is limited.


The goal of the current review was to assess the existing literature on the links between environmental toxicants (excluding heavy metals) and children’s cognitive, socioemotional, and behavioral development among young children.


This literature review highlights research on environmental toxicants (i.e. pesticide exposure, bisphenol A, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco smoke, polychlorinated biphenyls, flame retardants, phthalates and gas pollutions) and children’s development across multiple domains.


The results highlight the potential risk of exposure to multiple environmental toxicants for young children’s cognitive and socioemotional development.


Discussion will focus on the role of environmental toxicants in the cognitive and socioemotional development of young children, while highlighting gaps in the existing literature.

  1. Research funding: Funding support for this project was provided by an award from Mizzou Advantage from MU, and a Margaret Mangel Catalyst Award and a Seeding Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration from the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences.

  2. Conflict of interest: The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.

  3. Informed consent: Informed consent is not applicable.

  4. Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animal use.


1. Carlo G. The development and correlates of prosocial moral behaviors. In: Killen M, Smetana JG, editors. Handbook of moral development, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Psychology Press, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

2. Davis AN, Carlo G. Towards an integrative conceptual model on the relations between discrimination and prosocial behaviors in U.S. Latino/a youth. In: Fitzgerald H, Johnson D, Qin D, Villarruel F, Norder J, editors. Handbook of children and prejudice: integrating research, practice, and policy. New York, NY: Springer Press, in press.Search in Google Scholar

3. Sharkey P, Sampson R. Neighborhood violence and cognitive functioning. In: Schutt R, Keshavan MS, Seidman LJ, editors. Social neuroscience: brain, mind, and society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, in press.Search in Google Scholar

4. Shonkoff JP, Garner AS, Siegel BS, Dobbins MI, Earls MF, McGuinn L, et al. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics 2012;129(1):e232–46.10.1542/9781610023658-part02-the_lifelongSearch in Google Scholar

5. Rauh VA, Margolis AE. Research review: environmental exposures, neurodevelopment, and child mental health – new paradigms for the study of brain and behavioral effects. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2016;57(7):775–93.10.1111/jcpp.12537Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

6. Trentacosta CJ, Davis-Kean P, Mitchell C, Hyde L, Dolinoy D. Environmental contaminants and child development. Child Dev Perspect 2016;10(4):228–33.10.1111/cdep.12191Search in Google Scholar

7. Bellinger DC. Very low lead exposures and children’s neurodevelopment. Curr Opin Pediatr 2008;20(2):172–7.10.1097/MOP.0b013e3282f4f97bSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

8. Canfield RL, Henderson Jr CR, Cory-Slechta DA, Cox C, Jusko TA, Lanphear BP. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 μg per deciliter. N Engl J Med 2003;348(16):1517–26.10.1056/NEJMoa022848Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

9. Saint-Amour D, Roy MS, Bastien C, Ayotte P, Dewailly E, Després C, et al. Alterations of visual evoked potentials in preschool Inuit children exposed to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls from a marine diet. Neurotoxicology 2006;27(4):567–78.10.1016/j.neuro.2006.02.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

10. Sanders AP, Henn BC, Wright RO. Perinatal and childhood exposure to cadmium, manganese, and metal mixtures and effects on cognition and behavior: a review of recent literature. Curr Environ Health Rep 2015;2(3):284–94.10.1007/s40572-015-0058-8Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

11. Plusquellec P, Muckle G, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Bégin G, Desrosiers C, et al. The relation of environmental contaminants exposure to behavioral indicators in Inuit preschoolers in Arctic Quebec. Neurotoxicology 2010;31(1):17–25.10.1016/j.neuro.2009.10.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

12. EPA. Indoor air quality. Volatile organic compounds’ impact on air quality. 2016. in Google Scholar

13. Nurmatov UB, Tagiyeva N, Semple S, Devereux G, Sheikh A. Volatile organic compounds and risk of asthma and allergy: a systematic review. Eur Respir Rev 2015;24(135):92–101.10.1183/09059180.00000714Search in Google Scholar PubMed

14. Jurewicz J, Polańska K, Hanke W. Exposure to widespread environmental toxicants and children’s cognitive development and behavioral problems. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2013;26(2):185–204.10.2478/s13382-013-0099-xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

15. Schwartz J. Air pollution and children’s health. Pediatrics 2004;113(Suppl. 3):1037–43.10.1542/peds.113.S3.1037Search in Google Scholar

16. Andersen HR, Debes F, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Murata K, Grandjean P. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2015;47:1–9.10.1016/ in Google Scholar PubMed

17. Bouchard MF, Chevrier J, Harley KG, Kogut K, Vedar M, Calderon N, et al. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children. Environ Health Perspect 2011;119(8):1189–95.10.1289/ehp.1003185Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

18. Coker E, Gunier R, Bradman A, Harley K, Kogut K, Molitor J, et al. Association between pesticide profiles used on agricultural fields near maternal residences during pregnancy and IQ at age 7 years. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017;14(5):506–26.10.3390/ijerph14050506Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

19. de Joode BVW, Mora AM, Lindh CH, Hernández-Bonilla D, Córdoba L, Wesseling C, et al. (2016). Pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in children aged 6–9 years from Talamanca, Costa Rica. Cortex 2016;85:137–50.10.1016/j.cortex.2016.09.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

20. Donauer S, Altaye M, Xu Y, Sucharew H, Succop P, Calafat AM, et al. An observational study to evaluate associations between low-level gestational exposure to organophosphate pesticides and cognition during early childhood. Am J Epidemiol 2016;184(5):410–8.10.1093/aje/kwv447Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

21. Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, Fenster L, Johnson C, Barr DB, et al. In utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children. Pediatrics 2006;118(1):233–41.10.1542/peds.2005-3117Search in Google Scholar PubMed

22. Eskenazi B, An S, Rauch SA, Coker ES, Maphula A, Obida M, et al. Prenatal exposure to DDT and pyrethroids for malaria control and child neurodevelopment: the VHEMBE Cohort, South Africa. Environ Health Perspect (Online) 2018;126(4):1–11.Search in Google Scholar

23. Gaspar FW, Harley KG, Kogut K, Chevrier J, Mora AM, Sjödin A, et al. Prenatal DDT and DDE exposure and child IQ in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environ Int 2015;85:206–12.10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.004Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

24. González-Alzaga B, Hernández AF, Rodríguez-Barranco M, Gómez I, Aguilar-Garduño C, López-Flores I, et al. Pre-and postnatal exposures to pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain. Environ Int 2015;85:229–37.10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.019Search in Google Scholar PubMed

25. Gunier RB, Bradman A, Harley KG, Kogut K, Eskenazi B. Prenatal residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and IQ in 7-year-old children. Environ Health Perspect 2017;125(5):057002.10.1289/EHP504Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

26. Ribas-Fitó N, Torrent M, Carrizo D, Júlvez J, Grimait JO, Sunyer J. Exposure to hexachlorobenzene during pregnancy and children’s social behavior at 4 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115:447–50.10.1289/ehp.9314Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

27. Ribas-Fito N, Torrent M, Carrizo D, Munoz-Ortiz L, Julvez J, Grimalt JO, et al. In utero exposure to background concentrations of DDT and cognitive functioning among preschoolers. Am J Epidemiol 2006;164(10):955–62.10.1093/aje/kwj299Search in Google Scholar PubMed

28. Stein LJ, Gunier RB, Harley K, Kogut K, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Early childhood adversity potentiates the adverse association between prenatal organophosphate pesticide exposure and child IQ: the CHAMACOS cohort. Neurotoxicology 2016;56:180–7.10.1016/j.neuro.2016.07.010Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

29. Viel JF, Warembourg C, Le Maner-Idrissi G, Lacroix A, Limon G, Rouget F, et al. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and cognitive developmental disabilities in children: the PELAGIE mother-child cohort. Environ Int 2015;82:69–75.10.1016/j.envint.2015.05.009Search in Google Scholar PubMed

30. Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Calafat AM, Yolton K, Ye X, Dietrich KN, et al. Impact of early-life bisphenol A exposure on behavior and executive function in children. Pediatrics 2011;128:873–82.10.1542/peds.2011-1335Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

31. Braun JM, Muckle G, Arbuckle T, Bouchard MF, Fraser WD, Ouellet E, et al. Associations of prenatal urinary bisphenol A concentrations with child behaviors and cognitive abilities. Environ Health Perspect 2017;125(6):1–9.10.1289/EHP984Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

32. Casas M, Forns J, Martínez D, Avella-García C, Valvi D, Ballesteros-Gómez A, et al. Exposure to bisphenol A during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development in the INMA-Sabadell cohort. Environ Res 2015;142:671–9.10.1016/j.envres.2015.07.024Search in Google Scholar PubMed

33. Perera F, Vishnevetsky J, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Xiong W, Rauh V, et al. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure and child behavior in an inner-city cohort. Environ Health Perspect 2012;120(8):1190–4.10.1289/ehp.1104492Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

34. Roen EL, Wang Y, Calafat AM, Wang S, Margolis A, Herbstman J, et al. Bisphenol A exposure and behavioral problems among inner city children at 7–9 years of age. Environ Res 2015;142:739–45.10.1016/j.envres.2015.01.014Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

35. Abid Z, Roy A, Herbstman JB, Ettinger AS. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, and special education in US children aged 6 to 15. Int J Environ Public Health 2014;2014:1–10.10.1155/2014/628508Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

36. Cowell WJ, Bellinger DC, Coull BA, Gennings C, Wright RO, Wright RJ. Associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and memory domains in urban children: modification by sex and prenatal stress. PLoS One 2015;10(11):e0142492.10.1371/journal.pone.0142492Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

37. Cowell WJ, Lederman SA, Sjödin A, Jones R, Wang S, Perera FP, et al. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and child attention problems at 3–7 years. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2015;52:143–50.10.1016/ in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

38. Edwards SC, Jedrychowski W, Butscher M, Camann D, Kieltyka A, Mroz E, et al. Prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and children’s intelligence at 5 years of age in a prospective cohort study in Poland. Children’s Health 2010;119(9):1326–31.10.1289/ehp.0901070Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

39. Guxens M, Garcia-Esteban R, Giorgis-Allemand L, Forns J, Badaloni C, Ballester F, et al. Air pollution during pregnancy and childhood cognitive and psychomotor development: six European birth cohorts. Epidemiology 2014;25(5):636–47.10.1097/EDE.0000000000000133Search in Google Scholar PubMed

40. Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP, Camann D, Spengler J, Butscher M, Mroz E, et al. Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cognitive dysfunction in children. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2015;22(5):3631–9.10.1007/s11356-014-3627-8Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

41. Lovasi GS, Eldred-Skemp N, Quinn JW, Chang HW, Rauh VA, Rundle A, et al. Neighborhood social context and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures associated with child cognitive test scores. J Child Fam Stud 2014;23(5):785–99.10.1007/s10826-013-9731-4Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

42. Perera FP, Chang HW, Tang D, Roen EL, Herbstman J, Margolis A, et al. Early-life exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ADHD behavior problems. PLoS One 2014;9(11):e111670.10.1371/journal.pone.0111670Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

43. Perera FP, Rauh V, Whyatt RM, Tsai WY, Tang D, Diaz D, et al. Effect of prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on neurodevelopment in the first 3 years of life among inner-city children. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:1287–92.10.1289/ehp.9084Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

44. Perera FP, Wang S, Vishnevetsky J, Zhang B, Cole KJ, Tang D, et al. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-aromatic DNA adducts in cord blood and behavior scores in New York city children. Environ Health Perspect 2011;119(8):1176–81.10.1289/ehp.1002705Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

45. Perera FP, Wheelock K, Wang Y, Tang D, Margolis AE, Badia G, et al. Combined effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child ADHD behavior problems. Environ Res 2018;160:506–13.10.1016/j.envres.2017.09.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

46. Porta D, Narduzzi S, Badaloni C, Bucci S, Cesaroni G, Colelli V, et al. Air pollution and cognitive development at age seven in a prospective Italian birth cohort. Epidemiology 2015;27(2): 228–36.10.1097/EDE.0000000000000405Search in Google Scholar

47. Sunyer J, Esnaola M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Forns J, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, et al. Association between traffic-related air pollution in schools and cognitive development in primary school children: a prospective cohort study. PLoS Med 2015;12(3):1–24.10.1371/journal.pmed.1001792Search in Google Scholar

48. Chastang J, Baïz N, Cadwalladder JS, Robert S, Dywer J, Charpin DA, et al. Postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure related to behavioral problems in children. PLoS One 2015;10(8):e0133604.10.1371/journal.pone.0133604Search in Google Scholar

49. Davis CL, Tingen MS, Jia J, Sherman F, Williams CF, Bhavsar K, et al. Passive smoke exposure and its effects on cognition, sleep, and health outcomes in overweight and obese children. Child Obes 2016;12(2):119–25.10.1089/chi.2015.0083Search in Google Scholar

50. Hopson MB, Margolis A, Rauh V, Herbstman J. Impact of the home environment on the relationship between prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and child behavior. Int J Child Health Human Dev 2016;9(4):453–64.Search in Google Scholar

51. Melchior M, Hersi R, Van Der Waerden J, Larroque B, Saurel-Cubizolles MJ, Chollet A, et al. Maternal tobacco smoking in pregnancy and children’s socio-emotional development at age 5: the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study. Eur Psychiatry 2015;30(5):562–8.10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.03.005Search in Google Scholar

52. Leung CY, Leung GM, Schooling CM. Early second-hand smoke exposure and child and adolescent mental health: evidence from Hong Kong’s ‘Children of 1997’ birth cohort. Addiction 2015;110(11):1811–24.10.1111/add.13033Search in Google Scholar

53. Polanska K, Krol A, Merecz-Kot D, Ligocka D, Mikolajewska K, Mirabella F, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017;14(7):796–807.10.3390/ijerph14070796Search in Google Scholar

54. Caspersen IH, Haugen M, Schjølberg S, Vejrup K, Knutsen HK, Brantsaeter AL, et al. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is associated with language delay in 3 year old Norwegian children. Environ Int 2016;91:180–7.10.1016/j.envint.2016.02.031Search in Google Scholar

55. Stewart PW, Reihman J, Lonky EI, Darvill TJ, Pagano J. Cognitive development in preschool children prenatally exposed to PCBs and MeHg. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2003;25(1):11–22.10.1016/S0892-0362(02)00320-3Search in Google Scholar

56. Tatsuta N, Nakai K, Murata K, Suzuki K, Iwai-ShimadaM, Kurokawa N, et al. Impacts of prenatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and lead on intellectual ability of 42-month-old children in Japan. Environ Res 2014;133:321–6.10.1016/j.envres.2014.05.024Search in Google Scholar PubMed

57. Adgent MA, Hoffman K, Goldman BD, Sjödin A, Daniels JL. Brominated flame retardants in breast milk and behavioural and cognitive development at 36 months. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2014;28(1):48–57.10.1111/ppe.12078Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

58. Castorina R, Bradman A, Stapleton HM, Butt C, Avery D, Harley KG, et al. Current-use flame retardants: maternal exposure and neurodevelopment in children of the CHAMACOS cohort. Chemosphere 2017;189:574–80.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.09.037Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

59. Herbstman JB, Sjödin A, Kurzon M, Lederman SA, Jones RS, Rauh V, et al. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect 2015;223–44. 10.1201/b18221-19Search in Google Scholar

60. Lipscomb ST, McClelland MM, MacDonald M, Cardenas A, Anderson KA, Kile ML. Cross-sectional study of social behaviors in preschool children and exposure to flame retardants. Environ Health 2017;16(1):23.10.1186/s12940-017-0224-6Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

61. Roze E, Meijer L, Bakker A, Van Braeckel KN, Sauer PJ, Bos AF. Prenatal exposure to organohalogens, including brominated flame retardants, influences motor, cognitive, and behavioral performance at school age. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117:1953–8.10.1289/ehp.0901015Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

62. Vuong AM, Yolton K, Poston KL, Xie C, Webster GM, Sjödin A, et al. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and measures of inattention and impulsivity in children. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2017;64:20–8.10.1016/ in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

63. Doherty BT, Engel SM, Buckley JP, Silva MJ, Calafat AM, Wolff MS. Prenatal phthalate biomarker concentrations and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II in a population of young urban children. Environ Res 2017;152:51–8.10.1016/j.envres.2016.09.021Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

64. Engel SM, Miodovnik A, Canfield RL, Zhu C, Silva MJ, Calafat AM, et al. Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with childhood behavior and executive functioning. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118(4):565–71.10.1289/ehp.0901470Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

65. Engel SM, Zhu C, Berkowitz GS, Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Miodovnik A, et al. Prenatal phthalate exposure and performance on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in a multiethnic birth cohort. Neurotoxicology 2009;30(4):522–8.10.1016/j.neuro.2009.04.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

66. Factor-Litvak P, Insel B, Calafat AM, Liu X, Perera F, Rauh VA, et al. Persistent associations between maternal prenatal exposure to phthalates on child IQ at age 7 years. PLoS One 2014;9(12):e114003.10.1371/journal.pone.0114003Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

67. Gascon M, Valvi D, Forns J, Casas M, Martínez D, Júlvez J, et al. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and neuropsychological development during childhood. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2015;218(6):550–8.10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.05.006Search in Google Scholar

68. Huang HB, Chen HY, Su PH, Huang PC, Sun CW, Wang CJ, et al. Fetal and childhood exposure to phthalate diesters and cognitive function in children up to 12 years of age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. PLoS One 2015;10(6):e0131910.10.1371/journal.pone.0131910Search in Google Scholar

69. Kim Y, Ha EH, Kim EJ, Park H, Ha M, Kim JH, et al. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and infant development at 6 months: prospective Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study. Environ Health Perspect 2011;119(10):1495–500.10.1289/ehp.1003178Search in Google Scholar

70. Polanska K, Ligocka D, Sobala W, Hanke W. Phthalate exposure and child development: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Early Human Dev 2014;90(9):477–85.10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.06.006Search in Google Scholar

71. Swan SH, Liu F, Hines M, Kruse RL, Wang C, Redmon JB, et al. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys. Int J Androl 2010;33(2):259–69.10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01019.xSearch in Google Scholar

72. Whyatt RM, Liu X, Rauh VA, Calafat AM, Just AC, Hoepner L, et al. Maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and child mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development at 3 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 2012;120(2):290–5.10.1289/ehp.1103705Search in Google Scholar

73. Morales E, Julvez J, Torrent M, de Cid R, Guxens M, Bustamante M, et al. Association of early-life exposure to household gas appliances and indoor nitrogen dioxide with cognition and attention behavior in preschoolers. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169(11):1327–36.10.1093/aje/kwp067Search in Google Scholar

74. Socorro J, Durand A, Temime-Roussel B, Gligorovski S, Wortham H, Quivet E. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: an emerging air quality issue. Sci Rep 2016;6:1–7.10.1038/srep33456Search in Google Scholar

75. Rauh V, Arunajadai S, Horton M, Perera F, Hoepner L, Barr DB, et al. Seven-year neurodevelopmental scores and prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos, a common agricultural pesticide. Environ Health Perspect 2015;119(8):201–8.10.1201/b18030-6Search in Google Scholar

76. Gladen BC, Rogan WJ. Effects of perinatal polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene on later development. J Pediatr 1991;119(1):58–63.10.1016/S0022-3476(05)81039-XSearch in Google Scholar

77. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2016. Bisphenol A (BPA). in Google Scholar

78. Matsumoto H, Adachi S, Suzuki Y. Bisphenol A in ambient air particulates responsible for the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and its concentration changes over 6 months. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2005; 48(4):459–66.10.1007/s00244-003-0243-xSearch in Google Scholar

79. Nielsen T. Traffic contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the center of a large city. Atmos Environ 1996;30(20):3481–90.10.1016/1352-2310(96)00096-9Search in Google Scholar

80. MyHealth. Second-hand and third-hand tobacco smoke. 2017. in Google Scholar

81. Ciaccio CE, DiDonna A, Kennedy K, Barnes CS, Portnoy JM, Rosenwasser LJ. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in low-income children and its association with asthma. Allergy Asthma Proc 2014;35(6):462–6.10.2500/aap.2014.35.3788Search in Google Scholar

82. Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Thrasher JF, Chung-Hall J, Siahpush M. Socioeconomic status and smokers’ number of smoking friends: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) four country survey. Drug Alcohol Depend 2014;143:158–66.10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.07.019Search in Google Scholar

83. Shavers VL, Fagan P, Alexander LAJ, Clayton R, Doucet J, Baezconde-Garbanati L. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998–1999 and 2001–2002. J Epidemiol Community Health 2006;60(Suppl. 2):ii34–43.10.1136/jech.2006.046979Search in Google Scholar

84. Dachille KH, Cahallan K. Secondhand smoke and the family courts: the role of smoke exposure in custody and visitation decisions. A law synopsis by the tobacco control legal consortium. 2005. in Google Scholar

85. EPA. Polychlorinated biphenyls. Learn about polychlorinated biphenyls. 2018. in Google Scholar

86. Hens B, Hens L. Persistent threats by persistent pollutants: chemical nature, concerns and future policy regarding PCBs – what are we heading for? Toxics 2017;6(1):pii: E1.10.3390/toxics6010001Search in Google Scholar

87. Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW, Humphrey HE. Effects of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants on cognitive functioning in young children. J Pediatr 1990;116(1):38–45.10.1016/S0022-3476(05)81642-7Search in Google Scholar

88. Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW, Padgett RJ, Brumitt GA, Billings RL. Effects of prenatal PCB exposure on cognitive processing efficiency and sustained attention. Dev Psychol 1992;28(2):297–306.10.1037/0012-1649.28.2.297Search in Google Scholar

89. Andrade-Junior J. US state legislation updates flame retardants in consumer products. LinkedIn. 2017. in Google Scholar

90. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Phthalates Factsheet. 2017. in Google Scholar

91. Buonanno G, Morawska L, Stabile L. Particle emission factors during cooking activities. Atmos Environ 2009;43(20):3235–42.10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.03.044Search in Google Scholar

92. EPA. Formaldehyde: hazard summary. 2013. in Google Scholar

93. Wendee N. Cooking up indoor air pollution: emissions from natural gas stoves. Environ Health Perspect 2014;122(1):A27.10.1289/ehp.122-A27Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

94. Bale AS, Meacham CA, Benignus VA, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ. Volatile organic compounds inhibit human and rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005;205(1):77–88.10.1016/j.taap.2004.09.011Search in Google Scholar PubMed

95. Bönisch U, Böhme A, Kohajda T, Mögel I, Schütze N, von Bergen M, et al. Volatile organic compounds enhance allergic airway inflammation in an experimental mouse model. PLoS One 2012;7(7):e39817.10.1371/journal.pone.0039817Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

96. Choi H, Schmidbauer N, Sundell J, Hasselgren M, Spengler J, Bornehag CG. Common household chemicals and the allergy risks in pre-school age children. PLoS One 2010;5(10):e13423.10.1371/journal.pone.0013423Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

97. Rumchev K, Spickett J, Bulsara M, Phillips M, Stick S. Association of domestic exposure to volatile organic compounds with asthma in young children. Thorax 2004;59(9):746–51.10.1136/thx.2003.013680Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

98. Gibbs JL, Yost MG, Negrete M, Fenske RA. Passive sampling for indoor and outdoor exposures to chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and oxygen analogs in a rural agricultural community. Environ Health Perspect 2017;125(3):333–41.10.1289/EHP425Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

99. Leon Hsu HH, Mathilda Chiu YH, Coull BA, Kloog I, Schwartz J, Lee A, et al. Prenatal particulate air pollution and asthma onset in urban children. Identifying sensitive windows and sex differences. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015;192(9):1052–9.10.1164/rccm.201504-0658OCSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

100. Meltzer L, Ed. Executive function in education: from theory to practice. Guilford Publications, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

101. Vandenbroucke L, Verschueren K, Baeyens D. The development of executive functioning across the transition to first grade and its predictive value for academic achievement. Learn Instr 2017;49:103–12.10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.12.008Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2018-07-29
Accepted: 2018-12-19
Published Online: 2019-03-07
Published in Print: 2019-03-26

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 5.6.2023 from
Scroll to top button