People who work long hours on the road are intensively exposed to high levels of fine particulate matters (PM2.5) which may lead to oxidative stress mechanisms in the human body that cause deleterious health problems. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the major metabolite produced during lipid peroxidation metabolism that serves as a reliable biomarker for oxidative stress in cells.
To identify the association between PM2.5 exposure and other characteristics with urinary MDA levels among public transport drivers in Jakarta.
A cross-sectional design was implemented by involving 130 public transport drivers of nine trajectories from Kampung Melayu Terminal, Jakarta. The continuous PM2.5 data were collected in personal measurement during one round trip of driving. Weight and height measurements were obtained to calculate body mass index (BMI) and structured questionnaires were completed to identify other characteristics. MDA levels were examined from the driver’s urine right after driving and evaluated using TBARS analysis.
The average of PM2.5 exposure was 91.56 ± 20.05 μg/m3 and MDA levels were 2.23 ± 1.57 nmoL/mL. Drivers with overweight and obese BMI had significantly higher MDA levels (2.66 ± 1.65 nmoL/mL) compared to those with normal and underweight BMI status (1.97 ± 1.47 nmoL/mL). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated low PM2.5 exposure, normal and underweight BMI status, and a long period of working as drivers were associated with MDA levels (p<0.05). Contrary to the prior study, PM2.5 exposure was negatively associated with MDA levels due to most drivers’ BMI status being normal and underweight.
Our study suggests that the drivers who were obese and overweight should lose weight to lower the risk of increased MDA levels. We also suggest the drivers to consider maintaining their vehicle’s ventilation system or using personal protection equipment (PPE) to avoid high PM2.5 exposure while driving.
Funding source: Universitas Indonesia PITTA-B
Award Identifier / Grant number: NKB-0589/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019
We would like to thank: Unit Pengelola Terminal Kampung Melayu and all of public transport driver participants as well as the enumerators for all of supports.
Research funding: Universitas Indonesia PITTA-B support funds (Publikasi Terindeks Internasional Untuk Tugas Akhir Mahasiswa UI): Grant NKB-0589/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019.
Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.
Conflict of interest: Authors declare that no competing interest exists.
Informed consent: Informed consent was given by all participants.
Ethical approval: This study has passed the ethical review process at the Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia and received ethical clearance letter: Ket-363/UN2.F10/PPM.00.02/2019.
1. Pramitha, E, Haryanto, B. Effect of exposure to 2.5 μm indoor particulate matter on adult lung function in Jakarta. Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2019;10:51−5. https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.02.Search in Google Scholar
2. Brauer, M, Freedman, G, Frostad, J, van Donkelaar, A, Martin, RV, Dentener, F, et al. PM2.5 air pollution, population exposed to levels exceeding WHO guideline value (% of total). For the global burden of disease study 2015. Washington (WA): World Bank; 2016.Search in Google Scholar
4. Santoso, M, Lestiani, DD, Markwitz, A. Characterization of airborne particulate matter collected at Jakarta roadside of an arterial road. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2013;297:165–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-012-2350-5.Search in Google Scholar
5. Kusumaningtyas, SDA, Aldrian, E, Wati, T, Atmoko, D, Sunaryo, S. The recent state of ambient air quality in Jakarta. Aerosol Air Qual Res 2018;18:2343–54. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.10.0391.Search in Google Scholar
6. Jakarta, DKI. Data pertambahan jumlah kendaraan bermotor DKI Jakarta (number of motor vehicles in Jakarta) [Internet]; 2014. Available from: https://data.jakarta.go.id/dataset/data-pertambahan-jumlah-kendaraan-bermotor-dki-jakarta.Search in Google Scholar
7. United Nations. The world’s cities in 2018 [Internet]; 2018. Available from: https://www.un.org/en/events/citiesday/assets/pdf/the_worlds_cities_in_2018_data_booklet.pdf.Search in Google Scholar
8. The house of representatives of the republic of Indonesia. Air pollution and its implications for Indonesia: challenges and imperatives for change [Internet]; 2017. Available from: https://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/183201496935944434/200417-AirQualityAsia-Air-Pollution.pdf.Search in Google Scholar
9. Greenstone, M, Fan, Q. Indonesia’s worsening air quality and its impact on life expectancy [Internet]; 2019. Available from: https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Indonesia-Report.pdf.Search in Google Scholar
11. Valavanidis, A, Fiotakis, K, Vlachogianni, T. Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanism. J Environ Sci Health 2008;26:339–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/10590500802494538.Search in Google Scholar
12. Chuang, KJ, Yan, YH, Chiu, SY, Cheng, TJ. Long-term air pollution exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in Taiwan. Occup Environ Med 2011;68:64–8. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2009.052704.Search in Google Scholar
13. Shah, ASV, Langrish, JP, Nair, H, McAllister, DA, Hunter, AL, Donaldson, K, et al. Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2013;382:1039–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60898-3.Search in Google Scholar
14. Ghosh, N, Das, A, Chaffee, S, Roy, S, Sen, CK. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage and cell death. London, UK: Academic Press; 2018.10.1016/B978-0-12-805417-8.00004-4Search in Google Scholar
15. Marrocco, I, Altieri, F, Peluso, I. Measurement and clinical significance of biomarkers of oxidative stress in humans. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017;2017:6501046. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6501046.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
16. Ma, Q. Transcriptional responses to oxidative stress: pathological and toxicological implications. Pharmacol Ther 2010;125:376–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.11.004.Search in Google Scholar
17. Ayala, A, Muñoz, MF, Argüelles, S. Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014;2014:360438. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/360438.Search in Google Scholar
19. Singh, Z, Karthigesu, IP, Singh, P, Kaur, R. Use of malondialdehyde as a biomarker for assessing oxidative stress in different disease pathologies: a review. Iran J Pub Health 2015;43:7–16.Search in Google Scholar
20. Gong, J, Zhu, T, Kipen, H, Wang, G, Hu, M, Ohman-Strickland, P, et al. Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2013;23:322–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2012.127.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
21. Cui, X, Gong, J, Han, H, He, L, Teng, Y, Tetley, T, et al. Relationship between free and total malondialdehyde, a well-established marker of oxidative stress, in various types of human biospecimens. J Thoracic Dis 2018;10:3088–97. https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.05.92.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
22. Gong, J, Zhu, T, Kipen, H, Wang, G, Hu, M, Guo, Q, et al. Comparisons of ultrafine and fine particles in their associations with biomarkers reflecting physiological pathways. Environ Sci Technol 2014;48:5264–73. https://doi.org/10.1021/es5006016.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
23. Sahi, N, Jain, S, Ranawat, N. A comparative study between two communities & regional variation in level of MDA with respect to waist hip ratio and BMI in response to an exclusive fibre diet. J Med Clin Res 2017;5:29170–6. https://doi.org/10.18535/jmscr/v5i10.121.Search in Google Scholar
24. Singapore National Environment Agency. Air pollution in Singapore [Internet]; 2019. Available from: https://www.nea.gov.sg/our-services/pollution-control/air-pollution.Search in Google Scholar
25. A&A Scientific Resources SDN BHD. New Malaysia ambient air quality standard [Internet]; 2016. Available from: https://environment.com.my/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Ambient-Air.pdf.Search in Google Scholar
26. Vietnam Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Technical regulation QCVN 05:2013/BTNMT national technical regulation on ambient air quality [Internet]; 2013. Available from: https://www.env.go.jp/air/tech/ine/asia/Vietnam/files/law/QCVN%2005-2013.pdf.Search in Google Scholar
27. Philippines Department of Environment and Natural Resources. DENR administrative order N0.2013-13 establishing the provisional national ambient air quality guideline value for particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) [Internet]; 2015. Available from: https://air.emb.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/DAO-2013-13-PM2.5.pdf.Search in Google Scholar
28. Pollution Control Department Thailand. Announcement of the national environment board no. 36 (2553) on the standard dust particles up to 2.5 microns in the atmosphere in general [Internet]; 2010. Available from: https://www.pcd.go.th/info_serv/reg_std_airsnd01.html.Search in Google Scholar
29. Both, AF, Westerdahl, D, Fruin, S, Haryanto, B, Marshall, JD. Exposure to carbon monoxide, fine particle mass, and ultrafine particle number in Jakarta, Indonesia: effect of commute mode. Sci Total Environ 2013;443:965–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.082.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
30. Yu, N, Shu, S, Lin, Y, She, J, Ip, HSS, Qiu, X, et al. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers’ roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0188498. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188498.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
31. Brucker, N, Moro, AM, Charao, MF, Durgante, J, Freitas, F, Baierle, M, et al. Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation, and oxidative damage in taxi drivers. Sci Total Environ 2013;1:463–464, 884–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.06.098.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
32. Mbelambela, EP, Hirota, R, Eitoku, M, Muchanga, SMJ, Kiyosawa, H, Yasumitsu-Lovell, K, et al. Occupation exposed to road-traffic emissions and respiratory health among congolese transit workers, particularly bus conductor, in Kinshasa: a cross sectional study. Environ Health Prev Med 2017;22:11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-017-0608-9.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
33. Chaochao, T, Shijie, L, Yupeng, W, Yan, Z, Ting, S, Mingyue, L, et al. Long-term exposure to high air pollution induces cumulative DNA damages in traffic policemen. Sci Total Environ 2017;593–594:330–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.179.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
34. Chaney, RA, Sloan, CD, Cooper, VC, Robinson, DR, Hendrickson, NR, McCord, TA, et al. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: an examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0188053. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188053.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
35. Tartakovsky, L, Baibikov, V, Czerwinski, J, Gutman, M, Kasper, M, Popescu, D, et al. In-vehicle particle air pollution and its mitigation. Atmosph Environ 2013;64:320–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.10.003.Search in Google Scholar
36. Loft, S, Møller, P. Biomarkers of exposure: oxidative stress to DNA and lipids – relation to air pollution. In: Knudsen, LE, Merlo, DF, editors. Biomarkers and human biomonitoring. Cambridge, UK: RSC Publishing; 2012, vol 2.10.1039/9781849733540-00160Search in Google Scholar
37. Brucker, N, Nascimento, SN, Bernardini, L, Charao, MF, Garcia, SC. Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility in occupational exposure to traffic‐related air pollution. A review. J Appl Toxicol 2020;40:722–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.3940.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
38. Prasad, BS, Vidyullatha, P, Venkata, RP, Tirumala, VG. Evaluation of oxidative stress and DNA damage in traffic policemen exposed to vehicle exhaust. Biomarkers 2013;18:406–11. https://doi.org/10.3109/1354750x.2013.801517.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
39. Cachon, BF, Firmin, S, Verdin, A, Ayi-Fanou, L, Billet, S, Cazier, F, et al. Proinflammatory effects and oxidative stress within human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM>2.5) collected from Cotonou, Benin. Environ Poll 2014;185:340–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.10.026.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
40. Carvalho, RB, Carneiro, MFH, Barbosa, F, Batista, BL, Simonetti, J, Amantéa, SL, et al. The impact of occupational exposure to traffic-related air pollution among professional motorcyclists from Porto Alegre, Brazil, and its association with genetic and oxidative damage. Environ Sci Poll Res 2018;25:18620–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2007-1.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
41. Delfino, RJ, Staimer, N, Vaziri, ND. Air pollution and circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress. Air Qual Atmosph Health 2011;4:37–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-010-0095-2.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
42. Korda, M, Kubant, R, Patton, S, Malinski, T. Leptin-induced endothelial dysfunction in obesity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2008;295:H1514–21. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00479.2008.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
43. Biswas, SK. Does the interdependence between oxidative stress and inflammation explain the antioxidant paradox? Oxid Med Cell Longevity 2016;2016:5698931. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5698931.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
44. Thanan, R, Oikawa, S, Hiraku, Y, Ohnishi, S, Ma, N, Pinlaor, S, et al. Oxidative stress and its significant roles in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Int J Mol Sci 2014;16:193–217. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010193.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston