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Effect of particulate matter 2.5 exposure to urinary malondialdehyde levels of public transport drivers in Jakarta

Damai Arum Pratiwi and Budi Haryanto EMAIL logo

Abstract

Background

People who work long hours on the road are intensively exposed to high levels of fine particulate matters (PM2.5) which may lead to oxidative stress mechanisms in the human body that cause deleterious health problems. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the major metabolite produced during lipid peroxidation metabolism that serves as a reliable biomarker for oxidative stress in cells.

Objectives

To identify the association between PM2.5 exposure and other characteristics with urinary MDA levels among public transport drivers in Jakarta.

Methods

A cross-sectional design was implemented by involving 130 public transport drivers of nine trajectories from Kampung Melayu Terminal, Jakarta. The continuous PM2.5 data were collected in personal measurement during one round trip of driving. Weight and height measurements were obtained to calculate body mass index (BMI) and structured questionnaires were completed to identify other characteristics. MDA levels were examined from the driver’s urine right after driving and evaluated using TBARS analysis.

Results

The average of PM2.5 exposure was 91.56 ± 20.05 μg/m3 and MDA levels were 2.23 ± 1.57 nmoL/mL. Drivers with overweight and obese BMI had significantly higher MDA levels (2.66 ± 1.65 nmoL/mL) compared to those with normal and underweight BMI status (1.97 ± 1.47 nmoL/mL). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated low PM2.5 exposure, normal and underweight BMI status, and a long period of working as drivers were associated with MDA levels (p<0.05). Contrary to the prior study, PM2.5 exposure was negatively associated with MDA levels due to most drivers’ BMI status being normal and underweight.

Conclusion

Our study suggests that the drivers who were obese and overweight should lose weight to lower the risk of increased MDA levels. We also suggest the drivers to consider maintaining their vehicle’s ventilation system or using personal protection equipment (PPE) to avoid high PM2.5 exposure while driving.


Corresponding author: Budi Haryanto, Environmental Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia; and Research Center for Climate Change, Universitas Indonesia, Gedung PAU lt.8.5 Rektorat UI, Kampus UI, 16424, Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, Phone: +62217863479, Fax: +62217863479, E-mail: ,

Award Identifier / Grant number: NKB-0589/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank: Unit Pengelola Terminal Kampung Melayu and all of public transport driver participants as well as the enumerators for all of supports.

  1. Research funding: Universitas Indonesia PITTA-B support funds (Publikasi Terindeks Internasional Untuk Tugas Akhir Mahasiswa UI): Grant NKB-0589/UN2.R3.1/HKP.05.00/2019.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Conflict of interest: Authors declare that no competing interest exists.

  4. Informed consent: Informed consent was given by all participants.

  5. Ethical approval: This study has passed the ethical review process at the Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia and received ethical clearance letter: Ket-363/UN2.F10/PPM.00.02/2019.

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Received: 2020-02-11
Accepted: 2020-06-11
Published Online: 2020-07-08
Published in Print: 2020-09-25

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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