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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 14, 2020

Factors affecting aerobic granule sludge formation in leachate treatment – a systematic review

  • Abdolmotaleb Seid-mohammadi ORCID logo , Fatemeh Nouri ORCID logo and Fateme Asadi ORCID logo EMAIL logo


The biological treatment of landfill leachate due to high concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), ammonia, and other toxic compounds is so difficult. One of the leachate treatment technology is the sludge biogranulation, that containing the two aerobic and anaerobic process. The aim of this study was conducted for determining the main factors affecting aerobic granule sludge formation in leachate treatment. In this study, all related papers in international databases were evaluated including Google Scholar, Science Direct, and PubMed, Also Open Access Journal Directory from 1990 until 2020 were investigated. The keywords used included Aerobic Granule Sludge (AGS), leachate treatment, Wastewater treatment, Granular Sequential Batch Reactors (GSBR), Formation Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Overall, 2,658 articles were retrieved of which 71 were selected after revising the titles and abstracts. Aerobic granulation has been only lately studied and a limited number of studies have been devoted to identification aspects of the process such as the organic source, and other factor affecting on formation granules. Some factors as shear stress, settling time, and the effluent discharge site have direct effect on the efficiency of aerobic granules reactor and other factors such as divalent metal ions, dissolved oxygen concentration, the ratio of height to diameter of the reactor, temperature affecting on the granulation process. If suitable conditions provide, the aerobic granule sludge process can be useful for leachate treatment.

Corresponding author: Fateme Asadi, Ph.D., Student Research Committee, Department of Environmental health engineering, Hamadan University of medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran, Phone.: +98-9188566743, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.


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Received: 2020-02-12
Accepted: 2020-05-20
Published Online: 2020-07-14
Published in Print: 2020-11-18

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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