Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 13, 2020

A systematic review report on tobacco products and its health issues in India

Samprit Padhiary , Dibyaranjan Samal , Pratima Khandayataray and Meesala Krishna Murthy EMAIL logo

Abstract

India is the second country in tobacco production in the world. Smoking tobacco products included Hookah, Cohutta, Chillum, Chillum, ganja, Beedi, Mava, Cigarettes, and cigar etc. Various types of smokeless tobacco like betel quid, khaini, mishri, snuff, gutkha are used. Fifty percent of them are addicted to smokeless tobacco. Sixty eight smokeless tobacco products were available in 2010; most of them included the risk of cancer warning except for loose tobacco products. Women mostly prefer 8 out of 29 gutkha brands. Out of these 29 gutkha brands, 15 were loose tobacco packets. India is the second-largest tobacco consumer, comprises of 27.5 crore consumers which altogether greater than the population of Western Europe. From among these 27.5 crore consumers, 16.4 crore people are smokeless tobacco in takers, 6.9 crore people are exclusive smokers and 4.2 crore people are both tobacco in takers and exclusive smokers. If we take this data into consideration early mortality of 45 crore people is expected by 2050 worldwide. Female basically are prone to fewer cigarettes per day as compared to males. On the other hand, a cigarette that is consumed by females has lower nicotine content as compared to males. In developing countries, the female population has less prevalence of smoking because the level of employment is low, socio-cultural norms, and health and beauty concerns. According to the estimation by the South East Asia Region (SEAR) in the year 2000 basically from India, we encounter death of about 18% men and about 3% of women due to tobacco. Various policies have been set up to control the use of tobacco. So that threat to public health is reduced. Policies like tobacco control policy, pro-health policy are set up for this purpose. Talking about the effects on a longer-term usage of water pipe can add up to the risk of getting affected by cancers of lungs, mouth, bladders, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, tooth extraction, etc.


Corresponding author: Meesala Krishna Murthy, Department of Zoology, Mizoram University, Tanhril, Aizawl, 796004, Mizoram, India, Phone: +918787315302, Fax: +913892330644, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interest: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

  5. Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animal use.

References

1. Cohen, DA, Scribner, RA, Farley, TA. A structural model of health behavior: a pragmatic approach to explain and influence health behaviors at the population level. Prev Med 2000;30:146–54. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1999.0609.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

2. Mead, EL, Rimal, RN, Cohen, JE, Turner, MM, Lumby, EC, Feighery, EC, et al.. A two-wave observational study of compliance with youth access and tobacco advertising provisions of the cigarettes and other tobacco products act in India. Nicotine Tob Res 2016;18:1363–70. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv263.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

3. Adams, ML, Jason, LA, Pokorny, S, Hunt, Y. Exploration of the link between tobacco retailers in school neighborhoods and student smoking. J Sch Health 2013;83:112–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12006.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

4. McKay, AJ, Patel, RK, Majeed, A. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review. PloS One 2015;10:e0122610. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122610.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

5. Jha, P, Jacob, B, Gajalakshmi, V, Gupta, PC, Dhingra, N, Kumar, R, et al.. A nationally representative case-control study of smoking and death in India. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmsa0707719.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

6. John, RM, Sung, HY, Max, W. Economic cost of tobacco use in India, 2004. Tobac Contr 2009;18:138–43. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2008.027466.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

7. Nasser, AMA, Salah, BAM, Regassa, LT, Alhakimy, AAS, Zhang, X. Smoking prevalence, attitudes and associated factors among students in health-related departments of community college in rural Yemen. Tob Induc Dis 2018;16:31. https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/92547.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

8. Chhabra, A, Hussain, S, Rashid, S. Recent trends of tobacco use in India. J Public Health 2019;1:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-019-01091-3.Search in Google Scholar

9. Janeswar, A, Kumar, G, Kanungo, S, Singh, A, Subramanya, GB, Jha, K. Prevalence patterns and profile of adolescent tobacco users findings from a youth survey: a cross-sectional study. J Fam Med Prim Care 2019;8:2017–22. https://doi.org/10.4103/2Fjfmpc.jfmpc_219_19s.Search in Google Scholar

10. Mathew, JL, Patwari, AK, Gupta, P, Shah, D, Gera, T, Gogia, S, et al.. Acute respiratory infection and pneumonia in India: a systematic review of literature for advocacy and action: UNICEF-PHFI series on new born and child health, India. Indian Pediatr 2011;48:191–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13312-011-0051-8.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

11. Goel, S. India: smokeless tobacco ban. Tob Control 2012;5:458. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050689.Search in Google Scholar

12. World Health Organisation. Global tuberculosis report 2012. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation; 2012.Search in Google Scholar

13. World Health Organisation. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco epidemic, 2013: enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation; 2013.Search in Google Scholar

14. Mishra, GA, Pimple, SA, Shastri, SS. An overview of the tobacco problem in India. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2012;33:139–45. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5851.103139.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

15. West, R. Tobacco smoking: health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions. Psychol Health 2017;32:1018–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2017.1325890.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

16. Pradhan, A, Oswal, K, Padhan, A, Seth, S, Sarin, A, Sethuraman, L, et al.. Cigarettes and other tobacco products act (COTPA) implementation in education institutions in India: a cross-sectional study. Tob Prev Cessation 2020;6:1–7. https://doi.org/10.18332/tpc/125722.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

17. World Health Organization. WHO framework convention on tobacco control. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Document Production Services; 2003.Search in Google Scholar

18. World Health Organization. Evidence brief. How large pictorial health warning on the packing of tobacco products affects knowledge and behavior. Geneva: WHO; 2014.Search in Google Scholar

19. Trofor, AC, Papadakis, S, Lotrean, LM, Radu-Loghin, C, Eremia, M, Mihaltan, F, et al.. Knowledge of the health risks of smoking and impact of cigarette warning labels among tobacco users in six European countries: findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe surveys. Tob Induc Dis 2018;16:1–13. https://doi.org/10.18332/2Ftid/2F99542.Search in Google Scholar

20. Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PloS Med 2009;6:e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

21. Sarala, K, Murthy, TGK, RaoPrabhakara, K, Ravisankar, H. Tobacco research in India: trends and developments. Agrotechnology 2013;2:113. https://doi.org/10.4172/2168-9881.1000113.Search in Google Scholar

22. Bhonsle, RB, Murti, PR, Gupta, PC, Mehta, FS. Reverse dhumti smoking in Goa: an epidemiological study of 5449 villagers for oral precarious lesions. Indian J Canc 1976;13:301–5.Search in Google Scholar

23. Gupta, PC. Survey of sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco use among 99598 individuals in Bombay, India using handheld computers. Tobac Contr 1996;5:114–20. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.5.2.114.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

24. Gupta, PC, Sinor, PN, Bhonsle, RB, Pawar, VS, Mehta, HC. Oral submucous fibrosis in India: a new epidemic? Natl Med J India 1998;11:113–6.Search in Google Scholar

25. Ahmed, FM, Peeran, SW. Significance and determinants of tobacco use: a brief review. Dent Med Res 2016;4:33–8. https://doi.org/10.4103/2348-1471.184726.Search in Google Scholar

26. Soni, P, Raut, DK. Prevalence and pattern of tobacco consumption in India. Int Res J Soc Sci 2012;1:36–43.Search in Google Scholar

27. Schensul, JJ, Nair, S, Bilgi, S, Cromley, E, Kadam, V, Mello, SD, et al.. Availability, accessibility and promotion of smokeless tobacco in a low-income area of Mumbai. Tobac Contr 2013;22:324–30. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050148.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

28. Chadda, RK, Sengupta, SN. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents. Tob Induc Dis 2002;1:111–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1617-9625-1-2-111.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

29. Reddy, KS, Gupta, PC. Tobacco control in India. New delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2004:43–7.Search in Google Scholar

30. Efroymson, D, editor. Tobacco and poverty: observations from India and Bangladesh. Canada: Path Canada; 2002.Search in Google Scholar

31. Mukherjea, A, Modayil, MV, Tong, EK. Moving toward a true depiction of tobacco behavior among Asian Indians in California: prevalence and factors associated with cultural smokeless tobacco product use. Cancer 2018;124:1607–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31102.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

32. Mohan, P, Lando, HA, Panneer, S. Assessment of tobacco consumption and control in India. Indian J Clin Med 2018;9:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179916118759289.Search in Google Scholar

33. Singh, A, Arora, M, English, DR, Mathur, MR. Socioeconomic gradients in different types of tobacco use in India: evidence from global adult tobacco survey 2009–10. BioMed Res Int 2015;2015:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/837804.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

34. Bhan, N, Karan, A, Srivastava, S, Selvaraj, S, Subramanian, SV, Millett, C. Have socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco use in India increased over time? Trends from the national sample surveys (2000–2012). Nicotine Tob Res 2016;18:1711–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw092.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

35. Sinha, DN, Gupta, PC, Dobe, M, Prasad, VM. Tobacco control in schools of India: review from India global school personnel survey 2006. Indian J Publ Health 2007;51:101–6.Search in Google Scholar

36. Soneji, S, Sargent, J, Tanski, S. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults. Tobac Contr 2016;25:174–80. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051638.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

37. Gentzke, AS, Wang, B, Robinson, JN, Phillips, E, King, BA. Curiosity about and susceptibility toward Hookah smoking among middle and high school students. Prev Chronic Dis 2019;16:1–14. https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.180288.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

38. Perry, CL, Kelder, SH, Murray, DM, Klepp, KI. Communitywide smoking prevention: long-term outcomes of the Minnesota heart health program and the class of 1989 study. Am J Publ Health 1992;82:1210–16. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.82.9.1210.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

39. Osman, A, Kowitt, SD, Ranney, LM, Heck, C, Goldstein, AO. Trends and racial disparities in mono, dual, and poly use of tobacco products among youth. Nicotine Tob Res 2018;20:22–30. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nty051.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

40. Connolly, GN, Orleans, CT, Blum, A. Snuffing tobacco out of sport. Am J Publ Health 1992;82:351–63. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.82.3.351.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

41. Borzekowski, DL, Chen, JC. Tobacco cues in India: an ecological momentary assessment. Tob Induc Dis 2016;14:16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12971-016-0081-z.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

42. Smith, MR, Clark, B, Ludicke, F, Schaller, JP, Vanscheeuwijck, P, Hoeng, J, et al.. Evaluation of the tobacco heating system 2.2. Part 1: description of the system and the scientific assessment program. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2016;81:S17–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.07.006.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

43. Barth, J, Bengel, J, Critchley, J. Efficacy of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Behav Med 2006;32:10–20. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324796abm3201_2.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

44. Castellsague, X, Quintana, MJ, Martinez, MC, Nieto, A, Sanchez, MJ, Juan, A, et al.. The role of type of tobacco and type of alcoholic beverage in oral carcinogenesis. Int J Canc 2004;108:741–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11627.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

45. Hofhuis, W, De Jongste, JC, Merkus, PJ. Adverse health effects of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure on children. Arch Dis Child 2003;88:1086–90. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.88.12.1086.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

46. Ranabhat, CL, Kim, CB, Park, MB, Jakovljevic, MM. Situation, impacts and future challenges of tobacco control policies for youth: systematic policy review. Front Pharmacol 2019;10:1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00981.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

47. Ginzel, KH, Maritz, GS, Marks, DF, Neuberger, M, Pauly, JR, Polito, JR, et al.. Critical review: nicotine for the fetus, the infant and the adolescent? J Health Psychol 2007;12:215–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105307074240.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

48. Ambrose, JA, Barua, RS. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:1731–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.12.047.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

49. Guven, A, Tolun, F. Effects of smokeless tobacco “Maras Powder” use on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk parameters. Int J Med Sci 2012;9:786–92. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.4563.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

50. Siegel, D, Benowitz, N, Ernster, VL, Grady, DG, Hauck, WW. Smokeless tobacco, cardiovascular risk factors, and nicotine and cotinine levels in professional baseball players. Am J Publ Health 1992;82:417–21. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.82.3.417.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

51. Walter, M, Gerhard, U, Gerlach, M, Weijers, HG, Boening, J, Wiesbeck, GA. Controlled study on the combined effect of alcohol and tobacco smoking on testosterone in alcohol-dependent men. Alcohol Alcohol 2007;42:19–23. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agl089.Search in Google Scholar

52. Mulchahey, JJ, Ekhator, NN, Zhang, H, Kasckow, JW, Baker, DG, GeraciotiJr, TD. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma testosterone levels in post-traumatic stress disorder and tobacco dependence. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2001;26:273–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4530(00)00052-4.Search in Google Scholar

53. Mueck, AO, Seeger, H. Smoking, estradiol metabolism and hormone replacement therapy. Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents 2005;3:45–54. https://doi.org/10.2174/1568016052773270.Search in Google Scholar

54. Rasool Hassan, BA. Negative effects of cigarettes on smokers and non-smokers. Pharm Anal Acta 2012;3:e123. https://doi.org/10.4172/2153-2435.1000e123.Search in Google Scholar

55. Brownson, RC, Jackson-Thompson, J, Wilkerson, JC, Davis, JR, Owens, NW, Fisher, EBJr. Demographic and socioeconomic differences in beliefs about the health effects of smoking. Am J Publ Health 1992;82:99–103. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.82.1.99.Search in Google Scholar

56. D’Alessandro, A, Boeckelmann, I, Hammwhöner, M, Goette, A. Nicotine, cigarette smoking and cardiac arrhythmia: an overview. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2012;19:297–305. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741826711411738.Search in Google Scholar

57. Wynder, EL, Gottlieb, S, Wright, G. Study of tobacco carcinogenesis IV. Different tobacco types. Cancer 1957;10:1206–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(195711/12)10:6<1206::aid-cncr2820100618>3.0.co;2-p.10.1002/1097-0142(195711/12)10:6<1206::AID-CNCR2820100618>3.0.CO;2-PSearch in Google Scholar

58. Moller, AM, Villebro, N, Pedersen, T, Tonnesen, H. Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet 2002;359:114–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07369-5.Search in Google Scholar

59. Majumdar, AS, Nirwane, AM. Adverse impact of smokeless tobacco in precipitating metabolic and cardiovascular anomalies in estrogen deficient states. Austin J Pharmacol Ther 2014;2:1–3.Search in Google Scholar

60. Mishra, GA, Pimple, SA, Shastri, SS. An overview of the tobacco problem in India. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2012;33:169–45. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5851.103139.Search in Google Scholar

61. Kasza, KA, Coleman, B, Sharma, E, Conway, KP, Cummings, KM, Goniewicz, ML, et al.. Correlates of transitions in tobacco product use by US adult tobacco users between 2013–2014 and 2014–2015: findings from the PATH study wave 1 and wave 2. Int J Environ Res Publ Health 2018;15:1–21. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112515.Search in Google Scholar

62. Berman, ML, Connolly, G, Cummings, MK, Djordjevic, MV, Hatsukami, DK, Henningfield, JE, et al.. Providing a science base for the evaluation of tobacco products. Tob Regul Sci 2015;1:76–93. https://doi.org/10.18001/trs.1.1.8.Search in Google Scholar

63. Gupta, V, Yadav, K, Anand, K. Patterns of tobacco use across rural, urban, and urban-slum populations in a north Indian community. Indian J Community Med 2010;35:245–51. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.66877.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

64. Dhumal, GG, Pednekar, MS, Gupta, PC, Sansone, GC, Quah, AC, Bansal-Travers, M, et al.. Quit history, intentions to quit, and reasons for considering quitting among tobacco users in India: findings from the wave 1 TCP India survey. Indian J Canc 2014;51:S39–45. https://doi.org/10.4103/2F0019-509X.147467.Search in Google Scholar

65. Nascimento, SN, Göethel, G, Baierle, M, Barth, A, Brucker, N, Charao, MF, et al.. Environmental exposure and effects on health of children from a tobacco-producing region. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2017;24:2851–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8071-5.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

66. Petitti, DB, Friedman, GD, Kahn, W. Accuracy of information on smoking habits provided on self-administered research questionnaires. Am J Publ Health 1981;71:308–11. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.71.3.308.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

67. Qu, H, Houston, TK, Williams, JH, Gilbert, GH, Shewchuk, RM. Cognitive mapping tobacco control advice for dentistry: a dental PBRN study. Am J Health Behav 2011;35:228–39. https://doi.org/10.5993/ajhb.35.2.10.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

68. Glasgow, RE, Terborg, JR, Hollis, JF, Severson, HH, Boles, SM. Take heart: results from the initial phase of a work-site wellness program. Am J Publ Health 1995;85:209–16. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.85.2.209.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

69. Persai, D, Panda, R, Gupta, A. Examining implementation of tobacco control policy at the district level: a case study analysis from a high burden state in India. Adv Prev Med 2016;2016:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4018023.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

70. Panchamukhi, PR. Agricultural diversification as a tool of tobacco control paper. In: Proceedings of the WHO International Conference on Global Tobacco Control Law: Towards a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. New Delhi, India; 2000;7–9.Search in Google Scholar

71. Apelberg, BJ, Hepp, LM, Avila-Tang, E, Gundel, L, Hammond, SK, Hovell, MF, et al.. Environmental monitoring of second hand smoke exposure. Tobac Contr 2013;22:147–55. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050301.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

72. Jayakrishnan, R, Geetha, S, Nair, M, Pillai, JK, Thomas, G, Sebastian, P. Tobacco and alcohol use and the impact of school based anti-tobacco education for knowledge enhancement among adolescent students of rural Kerala, India. J Addict 2016;2016:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9570517.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

73. Flay, BR. Understanding environmental, situational and intrapersonal risk and protective factors for youth tobacco use: the theory of triadic influence. Nicotine Tob Res 1999;1:111–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622299050011911.Search in Google Scholar

74. Maziak, W, Ward, KD, Soweid, RA, Eissenberg, T. Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: a re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tobac Contr 2004;13:327–33. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2004.008169.Search in Google Scholar

75. Cummings, SR, Richard, RJ. Optimum cut-off points for biochemical validation of smoking status. Am J Publ Health 1988;78:574–85. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.78.5.574.Search in Google Scholar

76. Vogt, TM, Selvin, ST, Widdowson, G, Hulley, SB. Expired air carbon monoxide and serum thiocyanate as objective measures of cigarette exposure. Am J Publ Health 1977;67:545–9. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.67.6.545.Search in Google Scholar

77. Mendelson, JH, Sholar, MB, Mutschler, NH, Jaszyna-Gasior, M, Goletiani, NV, Siegel, AJ, et al.. Effects of intravenous cocaine and cigarette smoking on luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and prolactin in men. J Pharmacol Exp Therapeut 2003;307:339–48. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.052928.Search in Google Scholar

78. Kaleta, D, Polańska, K, Rzeznicki, A, Stelmach, W, Wojtysiak, P. Tobacco use patterns, knowledge, attitudes towards tobacco and availability of tobacco control training among school personnel from a rural area in Poland. Tob Induc Dis 2017;15:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12971-016-0110-y.Search in Google Scholar

79. Saffer, H, Chaloupka, F. The effect of tobacco advertising bans on tobacco consumption. J Health Econ 2000;19:1117–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-6296(00)00054-0.Search in Google Scholar

80. Critchley, JA, Capewell, S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review. Jama 2003;290:86–97. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.1.86.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

81. Ockene, JK, Kuller, LH, Svendsen, KH, Meilahn, E. The relationship of smoking cessation to coronary heart disease and lung cancer in the multiple risk factor intervention trial (MRFIT). Am J Publ Health 1990;80:954–8. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.80.8.954.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

82. Hyland, A, Bauer, JE, Li, Q, Abrams, SM, Higbee, C, Peppone, L, et al.. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns. Tobac Contr 2005;14:86–92. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2004.008730.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

83. Sharma, K, Junaid, M, Diwakar, MK. Economic implications of tobacco industry in India: an overview. Indian J Publ Health 2017;61:131–3. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_245_15.Search in Google Scholar PubMed

84. Zheng, W, McLerran, DF, Rolland, BA, Fu, Z, Boffetta, P, He, J, et al.. Burden of total and cause-specific mortality related to tobacco smoking among adults aged ≥45 years in Asia: a pooled analysis of 21 cohorts. PloS Med 2014;11:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631.Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Received: 2020-03-20
Accepted: 2020-10-03
Published Online: 2020-11-13
Published in Print: 2021-09-27

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 2.12.2022 from frontend.live.degruyter.dgbricks.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2020-0037/html
Scroll Up Arrow