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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 18, 2020

A link between nanoparticles and Parkinson’s disease. Which nanoparticles are most harmful?

  • Abbas Mohammadipour EMAIL logo , Hossein Haghir and Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan


Nowadays, different kinds of nanoparticles (NPs) are produced around the world and used in many fields and products. NPs can enter the body and aggregate in the various organs including brain. They can damage neurons, in particular dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatal neurons which their lesion is associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). So, NPs can have a role in PD induction along with other agents and factors. PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, and in patients, its symptoms progressively worsen day by day through different pathways including oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein increasing and aggregation, apoptosis and reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for PD. So, prevention of this disease is very important. On the other hand, without having sufficient information about PD inducers, prevention of this disease would not be possible. Therefore, we need to have sufficient information about things we contact with them in daily life. Since, NPs are widely used in different products especially in consumer products, and they can enter to the brain easily, in this review the toxicity effects of metal and metal oxide NPs have been evaluated in molecular and cellular levels to determine potential of different kinds of NPs in development of PD.

Corresponding author: Abbas Mohammadipour, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Microanatomy Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; and Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Azadi Sq, Vakilabad Blvd, PO Box 91779-48564, Mashhad, Iran, Phone: +98 51 38002486, Fax: +98 5138002487, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: We express our sincere gratitude for the support and funding provided by the Vice Chancellor for Research, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this review.

  4. Informed consent: Not applicable.

  5. Ethical approval: Not applicable.


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Received: 2020-03-30
Accepted: 2020-06-02
Published Online: 2020-07-18
Published in Print: 2020-11-18

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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