Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 24, 2020

Physiological effects of millimeter-waves on skin and skin cells: an overview of the to-date published studies

Dariusz Leszczynski


The currently ongoing deployment if the fifth generation of the wireless communication technology, the 5G technology, has reignited the health debate around the new kind of radiation that will be used/emitted by the 5G devices and networks – the millimeter-waves. The new aspect of the 5G technology, that is of concern to some of the future users, is that both, antennas and devices will be continuously in a very close proximity of the users’ bodies. Skin is the only organ of the human body, besides the eyes, that will be directly exposed to the mm-waves of the 5G technology. However, the whole scientific evidence on the possible effects of millimeter-waves on skin and skin cells, currently consists of only some 99 studies. This clearly indicates that the scientific evidence concerning the possible effects of millimeter-waves on humans is insufficient to devise science-based exposure limits and to develop science-based human health policies. The sufficient research has not been done and, therefore, precautionary measures should be considered for the deployment of the 5G, before the sufficient number of quality research studies will be executed and health risk, or lack of it, scientifically established.

Corresponding author: Dariusz Leszczynski, PhD, DSc, Adjunct Professor of Biochemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: The author has accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Author state no conflict of interest.

  4. Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animals use.


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Received: 2020-05-08
Accepted: 2020-05-27
Published Online: 2020-08-24
Published in Print: 2020-11-18

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