Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 24, 2020

Physiological effects of millimeter-waves on skin and skin cells: an overview of the to-date published studies

  • Dariusz Leszczynski EMAIL logo


The currently ongoing deployment if the fifth generation of the wireless communication technology, the 5G technology, has reignited the health debate around the new kind of radiation that will be used/emitted by the 5G devices and networks – the millimeter-waves. The new aspect of the 5G technology, that is of concern to some of the future users, is that both, antennas and devices will be continuously in a very close proximity of the users’ bodies. Skin is the only organ of the human body, besides the eyes, that will be directly exposed to the mm-waves of the 5G technology. However, the whole scientific evidence on the possible effects of millimeter-waves on skin and skin cells, currently consists of only some 99 studies. This clearly indicates that the scientific evidence concerning the possible effects of millimeter-waves on humans is insufficient to devise science-based exposure limits and to develop science-based human health policies. The sufficient research has not been done and, therefore, precautionary measures should be considered for the deployment of the 5G, before the sufficient number of quality research studies will be executed and health risk, or lack of it, scientifically established.

Corresponding author: Dariusz Leszczynski, PhD, DSc, Adjunct Professor of Biochemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: The author has accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Author state no conflict of interest.

  4. Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animals use.


1. Ziskin, MC. Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic. Bioelectromagnetics 2013;34:3–14. in Google Scholar

2. Hoffman, M. Picture of the skin. Human Anat. Available from: in Google Scholar

3. Sanford, JA, Gallo, RL. Functions of the skin microbiota in health and disease. Semin Immunol 2013;25:370–7. in Google Scholar

4. Kadlec, F, Berta, M, Kuzel, P, Lopot, F, Polakovic, V. Assessing skin hydration status in haemodialysis patients using terahertz spectroscopy: a pilot/feasibility study. Phys Med Biol 2008;53:7063–71. in Google Scholar

5. Owda, AY, Salmon, N, Harmer, SW, Shylo, S, Bowring, NJ, Rezgui, ND, et al. Millimeter-wave emissivity as a metric for the non-contact diagnosis of human skin conditions. Bioelectromagnetics 2017;38:559–69. in Google Scholar

6. Feldman, Y, Puzenko, A, Ben Ishai, P, Caduff, A, Davidovich, I, Sakran, F, et al. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range. Phys Med Biol 2009;54:3341–63. in Google Scholar

7. Hayut, I, Puzenko, A, Ben Ishai, P, Polsman, A, Agranat, AJ, Feldman, Y. The helical structure of sweat ducts: their influence on the electromagnetic reflection spectrum of the skin. IEEE Trans Terahertz Sci Technol 2012;3:207–15. in Google Scholar

8. Hayut, I, Ben Ishai, P, Agranat, AJ, Feldman, Y. Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts. Phys Rev E 2014;89:042715. in Google Scholar

9. Walters, TJ, Blick, DW, Johnson, LR, Adair, ER, Foster, KR. Heating and pain sensation produced in human skin by millimeter waves: comparison to a simple thermal model. Health Phys 2000;78:259–67. in Google Scholar

10. Egot-Lemaire, SJP, Ziskin, MC. Dielectric properties of human skin at an acupuncture point in the 50-75 GHz frequency range: a pilot study. Bioelectromagnetics 2011;32:360–6. in Google Scholar

11. Alekseev, ASI, Radzievsky, AA, Szabo, I, Ziskin, MC. Local heating of human skin by millimeter waves: effect of blood flow. Bioelectromagnetics 2005;26:489–501. in Google Scholar

12. Partyla, T, Hacker, H, Edinger, H, Leutzow, B, Lange, J, Usichenko, T. Remote effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves on experimentally induced cold pain: a double-blinded crossover investigation in healthy volunteers. Anesth Analg 2017;124:980–5. in Google Scholar

13. Müller, J, Hadeler, KP, Müller, V, Waldmann, J, Landstorfer, FM, Wisniewski, R, et al. Influence of low power cm-mm-microwaves on cardiovascular function. Int J Env Health Res 14:331–41. in Google Scholar

14. Gibbons, JA. Localized heat urticaria from 95-GHz millimeter wave. Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2017;88:586–8. in Google Scholar

15. Millenbaugh, NJ, Roth, C, Sypniewska, R, Chan, V, Eggers, JS, Kiel, JL, et al. Gene expression changes in the skin of rats induced by prolonged 35 GHz millimeter-wave exposure. Rad Res 2008;169:288–300. in Google Scholar

16. Godlevsky, LS, Tsevelev, SL, Polyasny, VA, Samchenko, IA, Muratova, TN. Antiepileptic effects of short-wave radiation in hypogeomagnetic conditions. Cent Eur J Med 2013;8:517–22. in Google Scholar

17. Kesari, KK, Behari, J. Fifty-gigahertz microwave exposure effect of radiations on rat brain. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2009;158:126–39. in Google Scholar

18. Xie, T, Pei, J, Cui, Y, Zhang, J, Qi, H, Chen, S, et al. EEG changes as heat stress reactions in rats irradiated by high intensity 35 GHz millimeter waves. Health Phys 2011;100:632–40. in Google Scholar

19. Kolosova, LI, Akoev, GN, Avelev, VD, Riabchikova, OV, Babu, KS. Effect of low-intensity millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation on regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats. Bioelectromagnetics 1996;17:44–7.<44::aid-bem6>;2-6.10.1002/(SICI)1521-186X(1996)17:1<44::AID-BEM6>3.0.CO;2-6Search in Google Scholar

20. Shanin, SN, Rybakina, EG, Novikova, NN, Kozinets, IA, Rogers, VJ, Korneva, EA. Natural killer cell cytotoxic activity and c-Fos protein synthesis in rat hypothalamic cells after painful electric stimulation of the hind limbs and EHF irradiation of the skin. Med Sci Monit 2005;11:BR309–15.Search in Google Scholar

21. Kesari, KK, Behari, J. Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2010;162:416–28. in Google Scholar

22. Subbotina, TI, Tereshkina, OV, Khadartsev, AA, Yashin, AA. Effect of low-intensity extremely high frequency radiation on reproductive function in wistar rats. Bull Exp Biol Med 2006;142:189–90. in Google Scholar

23. Frei, MR, Ryan, KL, Berger, RE, Jauchem, JR. Sustained 35-GHz radiofrequency irradiation induces circulatory failure. Shock 1995;4:289–93. in Google Scholar

24. Millenbaugh, NJ, Kiel, JL, Ryan, KL, Blystone, RV, Kalns, JE, Brott, BJ, et al. Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat. Shock 2006;25:625–32. in Google Scholar

25. Jauchem, JR, Ryan, KL, Lovelace, JD, Frei, MR. Effects of esmolol on 35 GHz microwave-induced lethal heat stress. J Autonom Pharmacol 1997;17:165–73. in Google Scholar

26. Jauchem, JR, Ryan, KL, Frei, MR. Cardiovascular and thermal responses in rats during 94 GHz irradiation. Bioelectromagnetics 1999;20:264–7.<264::aid-bem7>;2-v.10.1002/(SICI)1521-186X(1999)20:4<264::AID-BEM7>3.0.CO;2-VSearch in Google Scholar

27. Jauchem, JR, Ryan, KL, Tehrany, MR. Effects of histamine receptor blockade on cardiovascular changes induced by 35 GHz radio frequency radiation heating. Autonom Autacoid Pharmacol 2004;24:17–28. in Google Scholar

28. Jauchem, JR, Ryan, KL, Walters, TJ. Pathophysiological alterations induced by sustained 35-GHz radio-frequency energy heating. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2016;27:79–89. in Google Scholar

29. Ryan, KL, Frei, MR, Berger, RE, Jauchem, JR. Does nitric oxide mediate circulatory failure induced by 35-GHz microwave heating?. Shock 1996;6:71–6. in Google Scholar

30. Ryan, KL, Frei, MR, Jauchem, JR. Circulatory failure induced by 35 GHz microwave heating: effects of chronic nitric oxide synthesis inhibition. Shock 1997;7:70–6. in Google Scholar

31. Kurotchenko, SP, Subbotina, TI, Tuktamyshev, II, Tuktamyshev, IS, Khadartsev, AA, Yashin, AA. Shielding effect of mineral schungite during electromagnetic irradiation of rats. Bull Exp Biol Med 2003;5:458–9. in Google Scholar

32. Subbotina, TI, Khadartsev, AA, Yashin, MA, Yashin, AA. Effect of rotating electromagnetic fields on proteolytic activity of pepsin in rats. Bull Exp Biol Med 2004;137:632–3. in Google Scholar

33. Kalns, J, Ryan, KL, Mason, PA, Bruno, JG, Gooden, R, Kiel, JL. Oxidative stress precedes circulatory failure induced by 35-GHz microwave heating. Shock 2000;13:52–9. in Google Scholar

34. Kumar, S, Kesari, KK, Behari, J. Evaluation of genotoxic effects in male Wistar rats following microwave exposure. Indian J Exp Biol 2010;48:586–92.Search in Google Scholar

35. Sypniewska, RK, Millenbaugh, NJ, Kiel, JL, Blystone, RV, Ringham, HN, Mason, PA, et al. Protein changes in macrophages induced by plasma from rats exposed to 35 GHz millimeter waves. Bioelectromagnetics 2010;31:656–63. in Google Scholar

36. Bellossi, A, Dubost, G, Moulinoux, JP, Himdi, M, Ruelloux, M, Rocher, C. Biological effects of millimeter-wave irradiation on mice – preliminary results. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 2000;48:2104–10. in Google Scholar

37. Mason, PA, Walters, TJ, DiGiovanni, J, Beason, CW, Jauchem, JR, Dick, EJ, et al. Lack of effect of 94 GHz radio frequency radiation exposure in an animal model of skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 2001;22:1701–8. in Google Scholar

38. Radzievsky, AA, Gordiienko, OV, Szabo, I, Alekseev, SI, Ziskin, MC. Millimeter wave-induced suppression of B16 F10 melanoma growth in mice: involvement of endogenous opioids. Bioelectromagnetics 2004;25:466–73. in Google Scholar

39. Logani, MK, Natarajan, M, Makar, VR, Bhanushali, A, Ziskin, MC. Effect of millimeter waves on cyclophosphamide induced NF-kB. Electromagn Biol Med 2006;25:23–7. in Google Scholar

40. Vijayalaxmi, Logani, MK, Bhanushali, A, Ziskin, MC, Prihoda, TJ. Micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to 42 GHz electromagnetic millimeter waves. Rad Res 2004;161:341–5. in Google Scholar

41. Logani, MK, Agelan, A, Ziskin, MC. Effect of millimeter wav e radiation on catalase activity. Electromagn Biol Med 2002;21:303–8. in Google Scholar

42. Logani, MK, Anga, A, Szabo, I, Agelan, A, Irizarry, AR, Ziskin, MC. Effect of millimeter waves on cyclophosphamide induced suppression of the immune system. Bioelectromagnetics 2002;23:614–21. in Google Scholar

43. Makar, VR, Logani, MK, Bhanushali, A, Kataoka, M, Ziskin, MC. Effect of millimeter waves on natural killer cell activation. Bioelectromagnetics 2005;26:10–9. in Google Scholar

44. Logani, MK, Szabo, I, Makar, V, Bhanushali, A, Alekseev, S, Ziskin, MC. Effect of millimeter wave irradiation on tumor metastasis. Bioelectromagnetics 2006;27:258–64. in Google Scholar

45. Logani, MK, Bhanushali, A, Anga, A, Majmundar, A, Szabo, I, Ziskin, MC. Combined millimeter wave and cyclophosphamide therapy of an experimental murine melanoma. Bioelectromagnetics 2004;25:516–23. in Google Scholar

46. Makar, VR, Logani, MK, Szabo, I, Ziskin, MC. Effect of millimeter waves on cyclophosphamide induced suppression of T cell functions. Bioelectromagnetics 2003;24:356–65. in Google Scholar

47. Makar, VR, Logani, MK, Bhanushali, A, Alekseev, SI, Ziskin, MC. Effect of cyclophosphamide and 61.22 GHz millimeter waves on T-Cell, B-Cell, and macrophage functions. Bioelectromagnetics 2006;27:458–66. in Google Scholar

48. Logani, MK, Alekseev, S, Bhopale, MK, Slovinsky, WS, Ziskin, MC. Effect of millimeter waves and cyclophosphamide on cytokine regulation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2012;34:107–12. in Google Scholar

49. Rojavin, MA, Tsygankov, AY, Ziskin, MC. In vivo effects of millimeter waves on cellular immunity of cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Electro- Magnetobiol 1997;16:281–92. in Google Scholar

50. Rojavin, MA, Cowan, A, Radzievsky, AA, Ziskin, MC. Antipruritic effect of millimeter waves in mice: Evidence for opioid involvement. Life Sci 1998;63:PL251–7. in Google Scholar

51. Gapeyev, AB, Mikhailik, EN, Chemeriset, NK. Anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation: frequency and power dependence. Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29:197–206. in Google Scholar

52. Gapeyev, AB, Mikhailik, EN, Chemeris, NK. Features of anti-inflammatory effects of modulated extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 2009;30:454–61. in Google Scholar

53. Gapeyev, AB, Kulagina, TP, Aripovsky, AV, Chemeris, NK. The role of fatty acids in anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 2011;32:388–95. in Google Scholar

54. Gapeyev, AB, Kulagina, TP, Aripovsky, AV. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation modifies the composition of fatty acids in thymocytes and tumor tissue. Int J Rad Biol 2013;89:602–10. in Google Scholar

55. Gapeyev, AB, Aripovsky, AV, Kulagina, TP. Modifying effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on content and composition of fatty acids in thymus of mice exposed to X-rays. Int J Rad Biol 2015;91:277–85. in Google Scholar

56. Lushnikov, KV, Shumilina, YV, Yakushina, VS, Gapeev, AB, Sadovnikov, VB, Chemeris, NK. Effects of low-intensity ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic radiation on inflammatory processes. Bull Exp Biol Med 2004;4:364–6. in Google Scholar

57. Gapeyev, AB, Sirota, N, Kudriavtsev, AA, Chemeris, NK. Responses of thymocytes and splenocytes to low intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in normal mice and in mice with systemic inflammation. Biophysics 2010;55:577–82. in Google Scholar

58. Mezhevikina, LM, Khramov, RN, Lepikhov, KA. Simulation of the cooperative effect of development in cultured early mouse embryos after exposure to electromagnetic irradiation (Millimeter range). Russian J Dev Biol 2000;31:21–4. in Google Scholar

59. Rotkovská, D, Moc, J, Kautská, J, Bartonícková, A, Keprtová, J, Hofer, M. Evaluation of the biological effects of police radar RAMER 7F. Environ Health Perspect 1993;101:134–6. in Google Scholar

60. Alekseev, SI, Gordiienko, OV, Radzievsky, AA, Ziskin, MC. Millimeter wave effects on electrical responses of the sural nerve in vivo. Bioelectromagnetics 2010;31:180–90. in Google Scholar

61. Chatterjee, I, Yoon, J, Wiese, R, Luongo, S, Mastin, P, Sadovnik, L, et al. Millimeter wave bioeffects at 94 GHz on skeletal muscle contraction. IEEE top. conf. biomed. wireless technol. networks, and sensing syst.; 2013:67–9 pp. in Google Scholar

62. Radzievsky, AA, Gordiienko, OV, Alekseev, S, Szabo, I, Cowan, A, Ziskin, MC. Electromagnetic millimeter wave induced hypoalgesia: frequency dependence and involvement of endogenous opioids. Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29:284–95. in Google Scholar

63. Radzievsky, AA, Cowan, A, Byrd, C, Radzievsky, AA, Ziskin, MC. Single millimeter wave treatment does not impair gastrointestinal transit in mice. Life Sci 2002;71:1763–70. in Google Scholar

64. Radzievsky, AA, Rojavin, MA, Cowan, A, Alekseev, SI, Ziskin, MC. Hypoalgesic effect of millimeter waves in mice: dependence on the site of exposure. Life Sci 2000;66:2101–11. in Google Scholar

65. Radzievsky, AA, Rojavin, MA, Cowan, A, Alekseev, SI, Radzievsky, AAJr, Ziskin, MC. Peripheral neural system involvement in hypoalgesic effect of electromagnetic millimeter waves. Life Sci 2001;68:1143–51. in Google Scholar

66. Radzievsky, A, Gordiienko, O, Cowan, A, Alekseev, SI, Ziskin, MC. Millimeter-wave-induced hypoalgesia in mice: dependence on type of experimental pain. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 2004;32:1634–43. in Google Scholar

67. Rojavin, MA, Ziskin, MC. Electromagnetic millimeter waves increase the duration of anaesthesia caused by ketamine and chloral hydrate in mice. Int J Rad Biol 1997;72:475–80. in Google Scholar

68. Rojavin, MA, Radzievsky, AA, Cowan, A, Ziskin, MC. Pain relief caused by millimeter waves in mice: results of cold water tail flick tests. Int J Rad Biol 2000;76:575–9. in Google Scholar

69. Shckorbatov, YG, Grigoryeva, NN, Shakhbazov, VG, Grabina, VA, Bogoslavsky, AM. Microwave irradiation influences on the state of human cell nuclei. Bioelectromagnetics 1998;19:414–9.<414::aid-bem2<;2-4.10.1002/(SICI)1521-186X(1998)19:7<414::AID-BEM2>3.0.CO;2-4Search in Google Scholar

70. Shckorbatov, YG, Pasiuga, VN, Kolchigin, NN, Grabina, VA, Batrakov, DO, Kalashnikov, VV, et al. The influence of differently polarised microwave radiation on chromatin in human cells. Int J Rad Biol 2009;85:322–9. in Google Scholar

71. Shckorbatov, YG, Pasiuga, VN, Goncharuk, EI, Petrenko, TP, Grabina, VA, Kolchigin, NN, et al. Effects of differently polarized microwave radiation on the microscopic structure of the nuclei in human fibroblasts. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B (Biomed Biotechnol) 2010;11:801–5. in Google Scholar

72. Yaekashiwa, N, Otsuki, S, Hayashi, S, Kawase, K. Investigation of the non-thermal effects of exposing cells to 70– 300 GHz irradiation using a widely tunable source. J Rad Res 2018;59:116–21. in Google Scholar

73. Gallerano, GP, Doria, A, Giovenale, E, De Amicis, A, De Sanctis, S, Di Cristofaro, S, et al. Effects of mm-waves on human fibroblasts in-vitro. IEEE 40th int conf infrared, millimeter, and terahertz waves (IRMMW-THz); 2015;2015 IEEE, ISBN 9781479982721:1–2 pp. in Google Scholar

74. Nicolaz, CN, Zhadobov, M, Desmots, F, Sauleau, R, Thouroude, D, Michel, D, et al. Absence of direct effect of low-power millimeter-wave radiation at 60.4 GHz on endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell Biol Toxicol 2009;25:471–8. in Google Scholar

75. Nicolaz, CN, Zhadobov, M, Desmots, F, Ansart, A, Sauleau, R, Thouroude, D, et al. Study of narrow band millimeter-wave potential interactions with endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor genes. Bioelectromagnetics 2009;30:365–73. in Google Scholar

76. Zhadobov, M, Sauleau, R, Le Coq, L, Debure, L, Thouroude, D, Michel, D, et al. Low-power millimeter wave radiations do not alter stress-sensitive gene expression of chaperone proteins. Bioelectromagnetics 2007;28:188–96. in Google Scholar

77. Bourne, N, Clothier, RH, D’Arienzo, M, Harrison, P. The effects of terahertz radiation on human keratinocyte primary cultures and neural cell cultures. Altern Lab Anim 2008;36:667–84. in Google Scholar

78. Le Quément, C, Nicolaz, NC, Zhadobov, M, Desmots, F, Sauleau, R, Aubry, M, et al. Whole-genome expression analysis in primary human keratinocyte cell cultures exposed to 60 GHz radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 2012;33:147–58. in Google Scholar

79. Habauzit, D, Le Quément, C, Zhadobov, M, Martin, C, Aubry, M, Sauleau, R, et al. Transcriptome analysis reveals the contribution of thermal and the specific effects in cellular response to millimeter wave exposure. PLoS One 2014;9:e109435. in Google Scholar

80. Soubere Mahamoud, Y, Aite, M, Martin, C, Zhadobov, M, Sauleau, R, Le Dréan, Y, et al. Additive effects of millimeter waves and 2-deoxyglucose co-exposure on the human keratinocyte transcriptome. PLoS One 2016;11:e0160810. in Google Scholar

81. Chen, Q, Zeng, QL, Lu, DQ, Chiang, H. Millimeter wave exposure reverses TPA suppression of gap junction intercellular communication in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Bioelectromagnetics 2004;25:1–4. in Google Scholar

82. Szabo, I, Manning, MR, Radzievsky, AA, Wetzel, MA, Rogers, TJ, Ziskin, MC. Low power millimeter wave irradiation exerts no harmful effect on human keratinocytes in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 2003;24:165–73. in Google Scholar

83. Szabo, I, Rojavin, MA, Rogers, TJ, Ziskin, MC. Reactions of keratinocytes to in vitro millimeter wave exposure. Bioelectromagnetics 2001;22:358–64. in Google Scholar

84. Zhadobov, M, Nicolaz, CN, Sauleau, R, Desmots, F, Thouroude, D, Michel, D, et al. Evaluation of the potential biological effects of the 60-GHz millimeter waves upon human cells. IEEE Trans Antenn Propag 2009;57:2949–55. in Google Scholar

85. Szabo, I, Kappelmayer, J, Alekseev, SI, Ziskin, MC. Millimeter wave induced reversible externalization of phosphatidylserine molecules in cells exposed in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 2006;27:233–44. in Google Scholar

86. Le Pogam, P, Le Page, Y, Habauzit, D, Doué, M, Zhadobov, M, Sauleau, R, et al. Untargeted metabolomics unveil alterations of biomembranes permeability in human HaCaT keratinocytes upon 60 GHz millimeter-wave exposure. Sci Reports 2019;9:9343. in Google Scholar

87. Le Quement, C, Nicolaz, CN, Habauzit, D, Zhadobov, M, Sauleau, R, Le Dréan, Y. Impact of 60-GHz millimeter waves and corresponding heat effect on endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor gene expression. Bioelectromagnetics 2014;35:444–51. in Google Scholar

88. Hintzsche, H, Jastrow, C, Kleine-Ostmann, T, Kärst, U, Schrader, T, Stopper, H. Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro. PLoS One 2012;7:e46397. in Google Scholar

89. Korenstein-Ilan, A, Barbul, A, Hasin, P, Eliran, A, Gover, A, Korenstein, R. Terahertz radiation increases genomic instability in human lymphocytes. Rad Res 2008;170:224–34. in Google Scholar

90. Beneduci, A, Chidichimo, G, Tripepi, S, Perrotta, E, Cufone, F. Antiproliferative effect of millimeter radiation on human erythromyeloid leukemia cell line K562 in culture: ultrastructural- and metabolic-induced changes. Bioelectrochemistry 2007;70:214–20. in Google Scholar

91. Beneduci, A, Chidichimo, G, De Rose, R, Filippelli, L, Straface, SV, Venuta, S. Frequency and irradiation time-dependant antiproliferative effect of low-power millimeter waves on RPMI 7932 human melanoma cell line. Anticancer Res 2005;25:1023–8.Search in Google Scholar

92. Beneduci, A. Evaluation of the potential in vitro antiproliferative effects of millimeter waves at some therapeutic frequencies on RPMI 7932 human skin malignant melanoma cells. Cell Biochem Biophys 2009;55:25–32. in Google Scholar

93. Haas, AJ, Le Page, Y, Zhadobov, M, Sauleau, R, Le Dréan, Y. Effects of 60-GHz millimeter waves on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells using high content screening. Neurosci Lett 2016;618:58–65. in Google Scholar

94. Haas, AJ, Le Page, Y, Zhadobov, M, Sauleau, R, Le Dréan, Y, Saligaut, C. Effect of acute millimeter wave exposure on dopamine metabolism of NGF-treated PC12 cells. J Rad Res 2017;58:439–45. in Google Scholar

95. Haas, AJ, Le Page, Y, Zhadobov, M, Boriskin, A, Sauleau, R, Le Dréan, Y. Impact of 60-GHzmillimeterwaveson stress and pain-related protein expression in differentiating neuron-like cells. Bioelectromagnetics 2016;37:444–54. in Google Scholar

96. Tong, Y, Yang, Z, Yang, D, Chu, H, Qu, M, Liu, G, et al. Millimeter-wave exposure promotes the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into cells with a neural phenotype. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol (Med Sci) 2009;29:409–12. in Google Scholar

97. Titushkin, IA, Rao, VS, Pickard, WF, Moros, EG, Shafirstein, G, Cho, MR. Altered calcium dynamics mediates P19-derived neuron-like cell responses to millimeter-wave radiation. Rad Res 2009;172:725–36. in Google Scholar

98. Sun, S, Titushkin, I, Varner, J, Cho, M. Millimeter wave-induced modulation of calcium dynamics in an engineered skin co-culture model: role of secreted ATP on calcium spiking. J Radiat Res 2012;53:159–67. in Google Scholar

99. Gapeyev, AB, Safronova, VG, Chemeris, NK, Fesenko, EE. Inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species in mouse peritoneal neutrophils by millimeter wave radiation in the near and far field zones of the radiator. Bioelectrochem Bioenergetics 1997;43:217–20. in Google Scholar

100. Gapeyev, AB, Yakushina, VS, Chemeris, NK, Fesenko, EE. Modification of production of reactive oxygen species in mouse peritoneal neutrophils on exposure to low-intensity modulated millimeter wave radiation. Bioelectrochem Bioenergetics 1998;46:267–72. in Google Scholar

101. Gapeyev, AB, Lukyanova, NA. Pulse-modulated extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation protects cellular DNA from the damaging effects of physical and chemical factors in vitro. Biophysics 2015;60:732–8. in Google Scholar

102. Safronova, VG, Gabdoulkhakova, AG, Santalov, BF. Immunomodulating action of low intensity millimeter waves on primed neutrophils. Bioelectromagnetics 2002;23:599–606. in Google Scholar

103. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Guidelines for limiting exposure to electromagnetic fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz). Health Phys 2020;118:000– 000; 2020. Pre-print. in Google Scholar

104. Foster, KR, Ziskin, MC, Balzano, Q. Thermal modeling for the next generation of radiofrequency exposure limits: commentary. Health Phys 2017;113:41–53. in Google Scholar

105. Wu, T, Rappaport, TS, Collins, CM. Safe for generations to come: considerations of safety for millimeter waves in wireless communications. IEEE Microwave Mag 2015;16:65–84. in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-05-08
Accepted: 2020-05-27
Published Online: 2020-08-24
Published in Print: 2020-11-18

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 21.9.2023 from
Scroll to top button