Pakistan is amongst the developing countries, which have been strongly affected by several emerging and re-emerging disease outbreaks as a consequence of climate change. Various studies have clearly demonstrated the impact of climate change on human health in Pakistan. This has increased the rate of morbidity and mortality, related not only to vector-borne, water-borne and food-borne diseases but has also contributed to the prevalence of neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. It is therefore important to take adequate measurements for water management and improve sanitary conditions especially in case of natural disasters. In order to effectively control the emerging and re-emerging infections in the country, an early, more Rigorous response is required, by the national health department, to monitor and evaluate the spread of infections in future. Therefore, precise planning and management strategies should be defined in order to circumvent the damage caused by the natural disasters associated with climate changes. This mini-review gives an overview about the public health issues associated with environmental change with special reference to Pakistan. This will provide a baseline for policymakers to develop public health surveillance programs in Pakistan.
Research funding: Authors state no funding involved.
Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.
Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent is not applicable.
Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animal use.
1. Farooqi, AB, Khan, AH, Mir, H. Climate change perspective in Pakistan. Pakistan J Meteorol 2005;2:11–21.Search in Google Scholar
2. Ahmed, T, Scholz, M, Al-Faraj, F, Niaz, W. Water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health: a review for generalists with particular reference to Pakistan. Int J Environ Res Publ Health 2016;13:1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111051.Search in Google Scholar
3. Eckstein, D, Künzel, V, Schäfer, L. Global climate risk index 2018: who suffers most from extreme weather events? Weather-related loss events in 2016 and 1997–2016. Berlin: Germanwatch Nord-Süd Initiative eV; 2017.Search in Google Scholar
4. Beck, HE, Zimmermann, NE, McVicar, TR, Vergopolan, N, Berg, A, Wood, EF. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci Data 2018;5:180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214.Search in Google Scholar
5. WHO. Pakistan environmental health; 2019a. Available from: http://www.emro.who.int/pak/programmes/environmental-health.html [Accessed 19 Aug 2019].Search in Google Scholar
6. Malik, S, Awan, H, Khan, U. A study of the effect of climate change on human health in Pakistan. Evidence-based policy advocacy. UK: Sightsavers; 2013.Search in Google Scholar
8. Doherty, RM, Heal, MR, O’Connor, FM. Climate change impacts on human health over Europe through its effect on air quality. Environ Health 2017;16:33–44. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-017-0325-2.Search in Google Scholar
9. Babadjouni, RM, Hodis, DM, Radwanski, R, Durazo, R, Patel, A, Liu, Q, et al. Clinical effects of air pollution on the central nervous system; a review. J Clin Neurosci 2017;43:16–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2017.04.028.Search in Google Scholar
10. Chen, C-Y, Hung, H-J, Chang, K-H, Hsu, CY, Muo, CH, Tsai, CH, et al. Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of Parkinson’s disease: a nested case-control study. PloS One 2017;12:e0182834. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182834.Search in Google Scholar
11. Jung, C-R, Lin, Y-T, Hwang, B-F. Ozone, particulate matter, and newly diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan. Int J Alzheimer’s Dis 2015;44:573–84. https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-140855.Search in Google Scholar
12. Lee, H, Myung, W, Cheong, H-K, Yi, SM, Hong, YC, Cho, SI, et al. Ambient air pollution exposure and risk of migraine: synergistic effect with high temperature. Environ Int 2018;121:383–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.022.Search in Google Scholar
13. Feigin, VL, Roth, GA, Naghavi, M, Parmar, P, Krishnamurthi, R, Chugh, S, et al. Global burden of stroke and risk factors in 188 countries, during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet Neurol 2016;15:913–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1474-4422(16)30073-4.Search in Google Scholar
16. Schiedek, D, Sundelin, B, Readman, JW, Macdonald, RW. Interactions between climate change and contaminants. Mar Pollut Bull 2007;54:1845–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.09.020.Search in Google Scholar
19. Ruszkiewicz, JA, Tinkov, AA, Skalny, AV, Siokas, V, Dardiotis, E, Tsatsakis, A, et al. Brain diseases in changing climate. Environ Res 2019;177:108637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108637.Search in Google Scholar
20. Li, Y, Rittenhouse-Olson, K, Scheider, WL, Mu, L. Effect of particulate matter air pollution on C-reactive protein: a review of epidemiologic studies. Rev Environ Health 2012;27:133–49. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2012-0012.Search in Google Scholar
21. Abid, M, Schilling, J, Scheffran, J, Zulfiqar, F. Climate change vulnerability, adaptation and risk perceptions at farm level in Punjab, Pakistan. Sci Total Environ 2016;547:447–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.125.Search in Google Scholar
22. Malik, SM, Awan, H, Khan, N. Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan. Glob Health 2012;8:31. https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-8-31.Search in Google Scholar
23. Hanif, U. Socio-economic impacts of heat wave in Sindh. Pakistan J Meteorol 2017;13:87–96.Search in Google Scholar
24. Malashock, D, Khwaja, HA, Fatmi, Z, Siddique, A, Lu, Y, Lin, S, et al. Short-term association between black carbon exposure and cardiovascular diseases in Pakistan’s largest megacity. Atmosphere 2018;9:420. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9110420.Search in Google Scholar
25. WHO. Burden of disease from household air pollution for 2012; 2014. Available from: https://www.who.int/airpollution/data/HAP_BoD_results_March2014.pdf?ua=1 [Accessed 25 Jul 2019].Search in Google Scholar
26. Tahir, M, Bhatti, M, Majeed, A. Survey of drinking water quality in the rural areas of Rawalpindi District. Islamabad: Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources; 1994:35–9 pp.Search in Google Scholar
27. Banuri, T. Pakistan national conservation strategy: a plan of action for the 1990s. Islamabad, Pakistan: Sustainable Development Policy Institute; 1993.Search in Google Scholar
28. FE&DSD. Seasonal Awareness and Alert Letter (SAAL): for epidemic-prone infectious diseases in Pakistan; 2019. Available from: https://www.nih.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/45th-Issue-SAAL-final.pdf [Accessed 10 Sep 2019].Search in Google Scholar
29. Kendrovski, V, Gjorgjev, D. Climate change: implication for food-borne diseases (Salmonella and food poisoning among humans in R. Macedonia). In: Eissa, AA, editors. Structure and function of food engineering. Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2012:151–70 pp.10.5772/46183Search in Google Scholar
31. WMMR. Weekly morbidity and mortality report Pakistan; 2006. Available from: https://www.who.int/hac/crises/international/pakistan_earthquake/sitrep/Pakistan_WMMR_VOL23_03052006.pdf [Accessed 7 Sep 2019].Search in Google Scholar
32. Baqir, M, Sobani, ZA, Bhamani, A, Bham, NS, Abid, S, Farook, AJ, et al. Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:76–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2221-1691(11)60194-9.Search in Google Scholar
33. The News. Hepatitis E on the rise in Punjab. Punjab, Pakistan: The news; 2019.Search in Google Scholar
34. Arshad, A, Ashfaq, UA. Epidemiology of hepatitis C infection in Pakistan: current estimate and major risk factors. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2017;27:63–77. https://doi.org/10.1615/critreveukaryotgeneexpr.2017018953.Search in Google Scholar
35. Bostan, N, Javed, S, Eqani, SAMAS, Tahir, F, Bokhari, H. Dengue fever virus in Pakistan: effects of seasonal pattern and temperature change on distribution of vector and virus. Rev Med Virol 2017;27:e1899. https://doi.org/10.1002/rmv.1899.Search in Google Scholar
36. Fatima, Z, Afzal, S, Idrees, M, Rafique, S, Akram, M, Khubaib, B, et al. Change in demographic pattern of dengue virus infection: evidence from 2011 dengue outbreak in Punjab, Pakistan. Public Health 2013;127:875–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2013.03.003.Search in Google Scholar
37. Dawn News. 9,000 dengue cases reported this year; 2019. Available from: https://www.dawn.com/news/1506243/9000-dengue-cases-reported-this-year [Accessed 5 Oct 2019].Search in Google Scholar
38. Afzal, MF, Naqvi, SQ, Sultan, MA, Hanif, A. Chikungunya fever among children presenting with nonspecific febrile illness during an epidemic of dengue fever in Lahore, Pakistan. Merit Res J Med Med Sci 2015;3:69–73.Search in Google Scholar
39. Butt, AM, Siddique, S, Gardner, LM, Sarkar, S, Lancelot, R, Qamar, R. Zika virus in Pakistan: the tip of the iceberg? The Lancet Global health 2016;4:e913-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(16)30246-7.Search in Google Scholar
40. Directorate of Malaria Control. Malaria annual report 2016; 2016. Available from: http://dmc.gov.pk/documents/pdfs/Malaria%20Annual%20Report%202016.pdf [Accessed 12 Sep 2019].Search in Google Scholar
42. Arab News. Parasitic skin disease leaves thousands scarred in Pakistan’s northwest; 2019. Available from: https://www.arabnews.pk/node/1480661/pakistan [Accessed 26 Sep 2019].Search in Google Scholar
43. Medecines SANS Frontieres. The only option for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; 2019. Available from: https://www.msf.org/only-option-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-treatment-pakistan [Accessed 29 Aug 2019].Search in Google Scholar
44. WHO. Floods in Pakistan – health cluster bulletin No 12 – 16 August 2010; 2019b. Available from: http://www.who.int/hac/crises/pak/sitreps/16august2010/en/index.html [Accessed 26 Sep 2019].Search in Google Scholar
45. WHO. Epidemiological bulletin: flood response in Pakistan; 2010. Available from: http://www.who.int/hac/crises/pak/sitreps/pakistan_epi_30august2010.pdf [Accessed 18 Sep 2019].Search in Google Scholar
46. Ghafoor, R, Saleem, F, Iqbal, Q, Hassali, MA, Hashmi, FK, Haider, S, et al. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases attending a Public Healthcare Institute of Quetta City, Pakistan. J Pharm Pract Community Med 2018;4:16–20. https://doi.org/10.5530/jppcm.2018.1.5.Search in Google Scholar
47. Shah, K, Mehmood, S, Jan, A, Abbe, I, Ali, RH, Khan, A, et al. Sequence variants in nine different genes underlying rare skin disorders in 10 consanguineous families. Int J Dermatol 2017;56:1406–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13778.Search in Google Scholar
48. Bandino, JP, Hang, A, Norton, SA. The infectious and noninfectious dermatological consequences of flooding: a field manual for the responding provider. Am J Clin Dermatol 2015;16:399–424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40257-015-0138-4.Search in Google Scholar
© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston