Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 17, 2022

Exposure to air pollution and risk of ovarian cancer: a review

  • Samaneh Dehghani , Reza Moshfeghinia , Mahsan Ramezani , Mohebat Vali , Vahide Oskoei , Ehsan Amiri-Ardekani EMAIL logo and Philip Hopke EMAIL logo



Exposure to air pollution has destructive health consequences and a potential role in ovarian cancer etiology. We conducted a systematic review of the studies assessing the associations between ovarian malignancy and exposure to air pollutants.


The included studies were categorized based on types of measured ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter (five studies), gases (two studies), air pollutant mixtures (eight studies), and traffic indicators for air pollution (only one study). Because of the heterogeneity of quantitative data of the reviewed studies, we qualitatively reviewed the air pollution role in ovarian cancer risk with representing incidence and/or the mortality rate of ovarian cancer in related with air pollution. Nine studies were ecological study design. Except for one, all studies confirmed a positive correlation between exposure to ambient air pollution (AAP) and increased ovarian cancer risks.


We concluded that prolonged air pollution exposure through possible mechanisms, estrogen-like effects, and genetic mutations might affect ovarian tumorigenesis. This research surveyed the limitations of the previous studies, including issues with ambient air pollution surveillance and assessing the exposure, determining the air pollution sources, data analysis approaches, and study designs.


Finally, the authors provide suggestions for future environmental epidemiological inquiries on the impact of exposure to ambient air pollution on ovarian malignancy.

Corresponding authors: Ehsan Amiri-Ardekani, Department of Phytopharmaceutical (Traditional Pharmacy), Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Student Association of Indigenous Knowledge, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; and School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, E-mail: ; and Philip Hopke, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; and Institute for a Sustainable Environment, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA, E-mail:


The authors would like to appreciate all the subjects who participated in the study.

  1. Research funding: No funding was received for this study.

  2. Author contributions: All authors contributed equally to this work.

  3. Competing interests: The authors declare no competing of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Not applicable.

  5. Ethics approval: Not applicable.


1. Azhdarpoor, A, Hoseini, M, Shahsavani, S, Shamsedini, N, Gharehchahi, E. Assessment of excess lifetime cancer risk and risk of lung cancer due to exposure to radon in a middle eastern city in Iran. Radiat Med Protect 2021;2:112–6. in Google Scholar

2. Arani, MH, Jaafarzadeh, N, Moslemzadeh, M, Ghalhari, MR, Arani, SB, Mohammadzadeh, M. Dispersion of NO2 and SO2 pollutants in the rolling industry with AERMOD model: a case study to assess human health risk. J Environ Health Sci Eng 2021:1–12. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

3. Dehghani, S, Vali, M, Abedinzade, A. Ambient air pollution exposure and thyroid cancer incidence in Iran. J Air Pollut Health 2021;6:30–41. in Google Scholar

4. Vali, M, Hassanzadeh, J, Mirahmadizadeh, A, Hoseini, M, Dehghani, S, Maleki, Z, et al.. Effect of meteorological factors and Air Quality Index on the COVID-19 epidemiological characteristics: an ecological study among 210 countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2021:1–11. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

5. Brunekreef, B, Holgate, ST. Air pollution and health. Lancet 2002;360:1233–42.10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11274-8Search in Google Scholar PubMed

6. Simoni, M, Baldacci, S, Maio, S, Cerrai, S, Sarno, G, Viegi, G. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly. J Thorac Dis 2015;7:34–45. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

7. Yu, Q, Zhang, L, Hou, K, Li, J, Liu, S, Huang, K, et al.. Relationship between air pollutant exposure and gynecologic cancer risk. Int J Environ Res Publ Health 2021;18:5353. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

8. Calderón-Garcidueñas, L, Engle, R, Mora-Tiscareño, A, Styner, M, Gómez-Garza, G, Zhu, H, et al.. Exposure to severe urban air pollution influences cognitive outcomes, brain volume and systemic inflammation in clinically healthy children. Brain Cognit 2011;77:345–55.10.1016/j.bandc.2011.09.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

9. Kamangar, F, Dores, GM, Anderson, WF. Patterns of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence across five continents: defining priorities to reduce cancer disparities in different geographic regions of the world. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:2137–50. in Google Scholar PubMed

10. Al-Ahmadi, K, Al-Zahrani, A. NO2 and cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Publ Health 2013;10:5844–62. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

11. Anderson, GL, Judd, HL, Kaunitz, AM, Barad, DH, Beresford, SAA, Pettinger, M, et al.. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on gynecologic cancers and associated diagnostic procedures: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized trial. JAMA 2003;290:1739–48. in Google Scholar PubMed

12. Hwang, J, Bae, H, Choi, S, Yi, H, Ko, B, Kim, N. Impact of air pollution on breast cancer incidence and mortality: a nationwide analysis in South Korea. Sci Rep 2020;10:1–7. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

13. Jedrychowski, W, Maugeri, U, Bianchi, I. Environmental pollution in central and eastern European countries: a basis for cancer epidemiology. Rev Environ Health 1997;12:1–24. in Google Scholar PubMed

14. Huo, Q, Zhang, N, Wang, X, Jiang, L, Ma, T, Yang, Q. Effects of ambient particulate matter on human breast cancer: is xenogenesis responsible? PLoS One 2013;8: e76609. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

15. Shields, T, Gridley, G, Moradi, T, Adami, J, Plato, N, Dosemeci, M. Occupational exposures and the risk of ovarian cancer in Sweden. Am J Ind Med 2002;42:200–13. in Google Scholar PubMed

16. Heijmans, BT, Tobi, EW, Stein, AD, Putter, H, Blauw, GJ, Susser, ES, et al.. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci Unit States Am 2008;105:17046–9. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

17. Wang, J, Xie, P, Xu, Y, Kettrup, A, Schramm, K-W. Differing estrogen activities in the organic phase of air particulate matter collected during sunny and foggy weather in a Chinese city detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay. Atmos Environ 2004;38:6157–66. in Google Scholar

18. Capello, F, Gaddi, AV. Clinical handbook of air pollution-related diseases. Switzerland: Springer; 2018.10.1007/978-3-319-62731-1Search in Google Scholar

19. Vieira, VM, Villanueva, C, Chang, J, Ziogas, A, Bristow, RE. Impact of community disadvantage and air pollution burden on geographic disparities of ovarian cancer survival in California. Environ Res 2017;156:388–93. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

20. Hung, LJ, Chan, TF, Wu, CH, Chiu, HF, Yang, CY. Traffic air pollution and risk of death from ovarian cancer in Taiwan: fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as a proxy marker. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2012;75:174–82. Available at:. in Google Scholar PubMed

21. Rice, MS, Hankinson, SE, Tworoger, SS. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy, unilateral oophorectomy, and risk of ovarian cancer in the Nurses’ Health Studies. Fertil Steril 2014;102:192–8.e3. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

22. Trabert, B, Ness, RB, Lo-Ciganic, WH, Murphy, MA, Goode, EL, Poole, EM, et al.. Aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and acetaminophen use and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst 2014;106:djt431. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

23. Grant, WB. Air pollution in relation to U.S. cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anticancer Res 2009;29:3537–45. Available at: in Google Scholar

24. Huang, M, Xiao, J, Nasca, PC, Liu, C, Lu, Y, Lawrence, WR, et al.. Do multiple environmental factors impact four cancers in women in the contiguous United States? Environ Res 2019;179:108782. in Google Scholar PubMed

25. García-Pérez, J, Fernández-Navarro, P, Castelló, A, López-Cima, MF, Ramis, R, Boldo, E, et al.. Cancer mortality in towns in the vicinity of incinerators and installations for the recovery or disposal of hazardous waste. Environ Int 2013;51:31–44.10.1016/j.envint.2012.10.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

26. García-Pérez, J, Lope, V, López-Abente, G, González-Sánchez, M, Fernández-Navarro, P. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution. Environ Pollut 2015;205:103–10.10.1016/j.envpol.2015.05.024Search in Google Scholar PubMed

27. Iwai, K, Mizuno, S, Miyasaka, Y, Mori, T. Correlation between suspended particles in the environmental air and causes of disease among inhabitants: cross-sectional studies using the vital statistics and air pollution data in Japan. Environ Res 2005;99:106–17. in Google Scholar PubMed

28. Wang, H, Gao, Z, Ren, J, Liu, Y, Chang, LT-C, Cheung, K, et al.. An urban-rural and sex differences in cancer incidence and mortality and the relationship with PM2. 5 exposure: an ecological study in the southeastern side of Hu line. Chemosphere 2019;216:766–73. in Google Scholar PubMed

29. Lefkowitz, ES, Garland, CF. Sunlight, vitamin D, and ovarian cancer mortality rates in US women. Int J Epidemiol 1994;23:1133–6. in Google Scholar PubMed

30. Modugno, F, Laskey, R, Smith, AL, Andersen, CL, Haluska, P, Oesterreich, S. Hormone response in ovarian cancer: time to reconsider as a clinical target? Endocr Relat Cancer 2012;19:R255–R279. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

31. Ostrowska, L, Czapska, D, Karczewski, J. Otyłość jako czynnik ryzyka nowotworu sutka u kobiet. Pol Merkur Lek 2003;81:224–8.Search in Google Scholar

32. Lazennec, G. Estrogen receptor beta, a possible tumor suppressor involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 2006;231:151–7. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

33. Li, H-H, Zhao, Y-J, Li, Y, Dai, C-F, Jobe, SO, Yang, X-S, et al.. Estradiol 17β and its metabolites stimulate cell proliferation and antagonize ascorbic acid-suppressed cell proliferation in human ovarian cancer cells. Reprod Sci 2014;21:102–11. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

34. Rattan, S, Zhou, C, Chiang, C, Mahalingam, S, Brehm, E, Flaws, JA. Exposure to endocrine disruptors during adulthood: consequences for female fertility. J Endocrinol 2017;233:R109–R129. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

35. Ribeiro, JR, Freiman, RN. Estrogen signaling crosstalk: implications for endocrine resistance in ovarian cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2014;143:160–73. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

36. Todd, H. The effect of cadmium on ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines: an investigation of the possible mechanism of action; 2021.Search in Google Scholar

37. O’Donnell, AJM, Macleod, KG, Burns, DJ, Smyth, JF, Langdon, SP. Estrogen receptor-α mediates gene expression changes and growth response in ovarian cancer cells exposed to estrogen. Endocr Relat Cancer 2005;12:851–66. in Google Scholar PubMed

38. Heldring, N, Pike, A, Andersson, S, Matthews, J, Cheng, G, Hartman, J, et al.. Estrogen receptors: how do they signal and what are their targets. Physiol Rev 2007;87:905–31. in Google Scholar PubMed

39. Roy, JR, Chakraborty, S, Chakraborty, TR. Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals affecting puberty in humans--a review. Med Sci Mon 2009;15:RA137–RA145.Search in Google Scholar

40. Schiff, R, Osborne, CK. Endocrinology and hormone therapy in breast cancer: new insight into estrogen receptor-α function and its implication for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 2005;7:1–7. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

41. Fang, M, Webster, TF, Stapleton, HM. Activation of human peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors (PPARγ1) by semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs) and chemical mixtures in indoor dust. Environ Sci Technol 2015;49:10057–64. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

42. Suzuki, G, Tue, NM, Malarvannan, G, Sudaryanto, A, Takahashi, S, Tanabe, S, et al.. Similarities in the endocrine-disrupting potencies of indoor dust and flame retardants by using human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cell-based reporter gene assays. Environ Sci Technol 2013;47:2898–908. in Google Scholar PubMed

43. Li, C, Taneda, S, Suzuki, AK, Furuta, C, Watanabe, G, Taya, K. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of 4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006;217:1–6. in Google Scholar PubMed

44. Furuta, C, Suzuki, AK, Taneda, S, Kamata, K, Hayashi, H, Mori, Y, et al.. Estrogenic activities of nitrophenols in diesel exhaust particles. Biol Reprod 2004;70:1527–33. in Google Scholar PubMed

45. Mori, Y, Kamata, K, Toda, N, Hayashi, H, Seki, K, Taneda, S, et al.. Isolation of nitrophenols from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) as vasodilatation compounds. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26:394–5. in Google Scholar PubMed

46. Rutkowska, AZ, Szybiak, A, Serkies, K, Rachon, D. Endocrine disrupting chemicals as potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent cancers. Pol Arch Med Wewn 2016;126:562–70. in Google Scholar PubMed

47. Fernández-Navarro, P, García-Pérez, J, Ramis, R, Boldo, E, López-Abente, G. Industrial pollution and cancer in Spain: an important public health issue. Environ Res 2017;159:555–63.10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.049Search in Google Scholar PubMed

48. Plíšková, M, Vondráček, J, Canton, RF, Nera, J, Kočan, A, Petrík, J, et al.. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyls contamination on estrogenic activity in human male serum. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:1277–84.10.1289/ehp.7745Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

49. Lemaire, G, Terouanne, B, Mauvais, P, Michel, S, Rahmani, R. Effect of organochlorine pesticides on human androgen receptor activation in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;196:235–46. in Google Scholar PubMed

50. Rivero, J, Luzardo, OP, Henríquez-Hernández, LA, Machín, RP, Pestano, J, Zumbado, M, et al.. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study. Sci Total Environ 2015;537:197–202. in Google Scholar PubMed

51. Klein, GP, Hodge, EM, Diamond, ML, Yip, A, Dann, T, Stern, G, et al.. Gas-phase ambient air contaminants exhibit significant dioxin-like and estrogen-like activity in vitro. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:697–703. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

52. Vondráček, J, Pěnčíková, K, Neča, J, Ciganek, M, Grycová, A, Dvořák, Z, et al.. Assessment of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a human cell-based reporter gene assay. Environ Pollut 2017;220:307–16.10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.064Search in Google Scholar PubMed

53. Hardonniere, K, Huc, L, Sergent, O, Holme, JA, Lagadic-Gossmann, D. Environmental carcinogenesis and pH homeostasis: not only a matter of dysregulated metabolism. Semin Cancer Biol 2017;43:49–65. in Google Scholar PubMed

54. Kummer, V, Mašková, J, Zralý, Z, Neča, J, Šimečková, P, Vondráček, J, et al.. Estrogenic activity of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in uterus of immature Wistar rats. Toxicol Lett 2008;180:212–21. in Google Scholar PubMed

55. Liu, S, Abdelrahim, M, Khan, S, Ariazi, E, Jordan, VC, Safe, S. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor α in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Biol Chem 2006;387:1209–13. in Google Scholar PubMed

56. Swedenborg, E, Rüegg, J, Hillenweck, A, Rehnmark, S, Faulds, MH, Zalko, D, et al.. 3-Methylcholanthrene displays dual effects on estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ signaling in a cell-type specific fashion. Mol Pharmacol 2008;73:575–86. in Google Scholar PubMed

57. Borman, SM, Christian, PJ, Sipes, IG, Hoyer, PB. Ovotoxicity in female Fischer rats and B6 mice induced by low-dose exposure to three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: comparison through calculation of an ovotoxic index. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2000;167:191–8. in Google Scholar PubMed

58. Lim, J, Lawson, GW, Nakamura, BN, Ortiz, L, Hur, JA, Kavanagh, TJ, et al.. Glutathione-deficient mice have increased sensitivity to transplacental benzo [a] pyrene-induced premature ovarian failure and ovarian tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 2013;73:908–17. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

59. van Lipzig, MMH, Vermeulen, NPE, Gusinu, R, Legler, J, Frank, H, Seidel, A, et al.. Formation of estrogenic metabolites of benzo [a] pyrene and chrysene by cytochrome P450 activity and their combined and supra-maximal estrogenic activity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2005;19:41–55. in Google Scholar PubMed

60. Pesatori, AC, Consonni, D, Tironi, A, Zocchetti, C, Fini, A, Bertazzi, PA. Cancer in a young population in a dioxin-contaminated area. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:1010–3. in Google Scholar PubMed

61. Olsen, CM, Meussen-Elholm, ETM, Holme, JA, Hongslo, JK. Brominated phenols: characterization of estrogen-like activity in the human breast cancer cell-line MCF-7. Toxicol Lett 2002;129:55–63. in Google Scholar PubMed

62. Olsen, RW, Li, G-D. Gaba. In: Basic Neurochemistry. Elsevier; 2012. p. 367–76. in Google Scholar

63. McLemore, MR, Miaskowski, C, Aouizerat, BE, Chen, L, Dodd, MJ. Epidemiologic and genetic factors associated with ovarian cancer. Cancer Nurs 2009;32:281. in Google Scholar

64. Lauby-Secretan, B, Loomis, D, Grosse, Y, El Ghissassi, F, Bouvard, V, Benbrahim-Tallaa, L, et al.. Carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls. Lancet Oncol 2013;14:287–8. in Google Scholar PubMed

65. Castano-Vinyals, G, D’errico, A, Malats, N, Kogevinas, M. Biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental air pollution. Occup Environ Med 2004;61:e12. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

66. Vineis, P, Husgafvel-Pursiainen, K. Air pollution and cancer: biomarker studies in human populations. Carcinogenesis 2005;26:1846–55. in Google Scholar PubMed

67. Høgdall, EVS, Christensen, L, Kjaer, SK, Blaakaer, J, Kjærbye-Thygesen, A, Gayther, S, et al.. CA125 expression pattern, prognosis and correlation with serum CA125 in ovarian tumor patients: from the Danish “MALOVA” ovarian cancer study. Gynecol Oncol 2007;104:508–15. in Google Scholar PubMed

68. Streppel, MM, Vincent, A, Mukherjee, R, Campbell, NR, Chen, S-H, Konstantopoulos, K, et al.. Mucin 16 (cancer antigen 125) expression in human tissues and cell lines and correlation with clinical outcome in adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and colon. Hum Pathol 2012;43:1755–63. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

69. Loh, MM, Soares, J, Karppinen, A, Kukkonen, J, Kangas, L, Riikonen, K, et al.. Intake fraction distributions for benzene from vehicles in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Atmos Environ 2009;43:301–10. in Google Scholar

70. Goldsmith, JR. The “urban factor” in cancer: smoking, industrial exposures, and air pollution as possible explanations. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 1980;3:205.Search in Google Scholar

71. Greenberg, MR. Urbanization and cancer mortality: the United States experience, 1950–1975. USA: Oxford University Press; 1983.Search in Google Scholar

72. Najem, GR, Greer, TW. Female reproductive organs and breast cancer mortality in New Jersey counties and the relationship with certain environmental variables. Prev Med 1985;14:620–35. in Google Scholar PubMed

73. Yang, C, Hsieh, Y. The relationship between population density and cancer mortality in Taiwan. Jpn J Cancer Res 1998;89:355–60. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

74. Yang, H, Pu, H, Wang, S, Ni, R, Li, B. Inequality of female health and its relation with urbanization level in China: geographic variation perspective. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019;26:16662–73. in Google Scholar PubMed

75. Dehghani, MH, Jarahzadeh, S, Hadei, M, Mansouri, N, Rashidi, Y, Yousefi, M. The data on the dispersion modeling of traffic-related PM10 and CO emissions using CALINE3; A case study in Tehran, Iran. Data Brief 2018;19:2284–90. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

76. Nabizadeh, R, Yousefi, M, Azimi, F. Study of particle number size distributions at Azadi terminal in Tehran, comparing high-traffic and no traffic area. MethodsX 2018;5:1549–55. in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

77. Reid, A, Heyworth, J, De Klerk, N, Musk, AW. The mortality of women exposed environmentally and domestically to blue asbestos at Wittenoom, Western Australia. Occup Environ Med 2008;65:743–9. in Google Scholar

78. Heller, DS, Gordon, RE, Westhoff, C, Gerber, S. Asbestos exposure and ovarian fiber burden. Am J Ind Med 1996;29:435–9.<435::aid-ajim1>;2-l.10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199605)29:5<435::AID-AJIM1>3.0.CO;2-LSearch in Google Scholar

79. Hanchette, C, Zhang, CH, Schwartz, GG. Ovarian cancer incidence in the US and toxic emissions from pulp and paper plants: a geospatial analysis. Int J Environ Res Publ Health 2018;15:1619. in Google Scholar

80. Shahriar, M, Islam, RB, Mahmood, AS, Al Mamun, MS, Nahar, SS, Sadiana, T, et al.. Risk factors and trends of common cancers in Bangladesh: outcome of hospital based case control survey conducted in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Stamford J Pharm Sci 2011;4:35–41.10.3329/sjps.v4i2.10439Search in Google Scholar

81. Brody, JG, Rudel, RA. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect 2003;111:1007–19. in Google Scholar

82. Taneda, S, Hayashi, H, Sakushima, A, Seki, K, Suzuki, AK, Kamata, K, et al.. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of two types of diesel exhaust particles. Toxicology 2002;170:153–61. in Google Scholar

Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (

Received: 2021-09-19
Accepted: 2022-04-15
Published Online: 2022-05-17
Published in Print: 2023-09-26

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 6.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button