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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 5, 2022

Evaluation of the impact of different disinfectants on new coronavirus and human health

  • Trias Mahmudiono , Pushpamala Ramaiah , Heydar Maleki , Rumi Iqbal Doewes , Mohammed Nader Shalaby , Fahad Alsaikhan and Mohammad Javad Mohammadi EMAIL logo


A new health threat was appeared in 2019 known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The new coronavirus distributed all over the world and caused millions of deaths. One way to incomplete the process of COVID-19 transfer from one person to another is using disinfectants. A narrative review study was done on manuscript published documents about the stability of the virus, different types of disinfectants and the effects of disinfectants on SARS-CoV2 and environment from 2005 to 2022 based on Searched databases included Google Scholar, Springer, PubMed, Web of Science and Science Direct (Scopus). All relevant studies published 2005 until 2022 gathered. According to the databases, 670 articles were retrieved. Thirty studies were screened after review and 30 full-text articles entered into the analysis process. Finally, 14 articles were selected in this study. New coronavirus could survive until 9 days in room temperature; the surviving time decreases if temperature increases. The virus can survive in various plastic, glass, and metal surfaces for hours to days. Disinfectants, such as alcohol, isopropanol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and ethanol, can kill 70–90% viruses in up to 30 s but should be noted that these disinfectants are recognized by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as a potential carcinogen. According to the different reports, increased duration and level of disinfectant exposure can have negative impacts on human and animal health including upper and lower respiratory tract irritation, inflammation, edema, ulceration, and allergic reactions.

Corresponding author: Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, Phone: +989355439707. E-mail:


The authors are grateful to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences for providing necessary facilities to perform this research.

  1. Research funding: This work was not financially supported.

  2. Author contributions: TM, PR, HM, RI-D, M-NS, FA, and M-JM were principal investigators of the study and drafted the manuscript. TM, PR, HM, RI-D, M-NS, FA, and M-JM were advisors of the study. TM, PR, HM, RI-D, M-NS, FA and M-JM performed the statistical analysis. All authors contributed to the design and data analysis and assisted in the preparation of the final version of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

  3. Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

  4. Informed consent: Not applicable.

  5. Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animal use.


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Received: 2022-03-11
Accepted: 2022-04-17
Published Online: 2022-05-05
Published in Print: 2023-09-26

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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