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Modification of bentonite clay & its applications: a review

  • Debasis Borah , Harshajit Nath und Hemaprobha Saikia ORCID logo EMAIL logo
Aus der Zeitschrift Reviews in Inorganic Chemistry


Bentonite clay is one of the oldest clays that humankind has been using from ancient times as traditional habits and remedies. In recent years researchers have found many applications of bentonite clay due to its various physio-chemical properties. In the present work, various physical and chemical properties of bentonite such as surface area, adsorption, swelling properties, cation exchange properties, etc. have been studied. This study also includes various procedures of modification of bentonite clay into Chitosan/Ag-bentonite composite, Fe-Modified bentonite, Hydroxyl-Fe-pillared-bentonite, Organo Bentonite, Organophilic clay, Arenesulfonic Acid-Functionalized Bentonite, Bentonite clay modified with Nb2O5. The study reveals that bentonite clay has large surface area due to similar structure with montmorillonite and it is found that the functionality of bentonite can be increased by increasing total surface area of the clay. Due to high cation exchangeability of bentonite, various cations can be incorporated into it. After purification and modification, the absorbent aluminum phyllosilicate bentonite clay can be used as an efficient catalyst in various types of catalytic reactions. Moreover, bentonite clay can be applied in various field like drilling, civil engineering, agriculture and water treatment.

Corresponding author: Hemaprobha Saikia, Department of Chemistry, Bodoland University, Kokrajhar, Assam 783370, India, E-mail:


The authors are thankful to Arvind Kumar Goyal, Department of Biotechnology, Bodoland University, Kokrajhar, Assam for his valuable guidance in writing a few sections of the article.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Received: 2021-08-13
Accepted: 2021-10-20
Published Online: 2021-11-10
Published in Print: 2022-09-27

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