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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 28, 2013

Brain-computer interface technologies: from signal to action

Alexis Ortiz-Rosario and Hojjat Adeli


Here, we present a state-of-the-art review of the research performed on the brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies with a focus on signal processing approaches. BCI can be divided into three main components: signal acquisition, signal processing, and effector device. The signal acquisition component is generally divided into two categories: noninvasive and invasive. For noninvasive, this review focuses on electroencephalogram. For the invasive, the review includes electrocorticography, local field potentials, multiple-unit activity, and single-unit action potentials. Signal processing techniques reviewed are divided into time-frequency methods such as Fourier transform, autoregressive models, wavelets, and Kalman filter and spatiotemporal techniques such as Laplacian filter and common spatial patterns. Additionally, various signal feature classification algorithms are discussed such as linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and Bayesian classifiers. The article ends with a discussion of challenges facing BCI and concluding remarks on the future of the technology.

Corresponding author: Hojjat Adeli, Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Informatics, Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Neurological Surgery, and Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, 470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, e-mail:


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Received: 2013-5-18
Accepted: 2013-8-21
Published Online: 2013-09-28
Published in Print: 2013-10-01

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston