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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 22, 2017

Neurotransmission systems in Parkinson’s disease

Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Farzaneh Rahmani and Nima Rezaei


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is histologically characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein particles, known as Lewy bodies. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder, PD is widely known because of the typical motor manifestations of active tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, while several prodromal non-motor symptoms including REM sleep behavior disorders, depression, autonomic disturbances, and cognitive decline are being more extensively recognized. Motor symptoms most commonly arise from synucleinopathy of nigrostriatal pathway. Glutamatergic, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, cholinergic, serotoninergic, and endocannabinoid neurotransmission systems are not spared from the global cerebral neurodegenerative assault. Wide intrabasal and extrabasal of the basal ganglia provide enough justification to evaluate network circuits disturbance of these neurotransmission systems in PD. In this comprehensive review, English literature in PubMed, Science direct, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were perused. Characteristics of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic systems, disturbance of these neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of PD, and their treatment applications are discussed.


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Received: 2016-10-15
Accepted: 2017-1-10
Published Online: 2017-3-22
Published in Print: 2017-7-26

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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