Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 21, 2018

Mindfulness and meditation: treating cognitive impairment and reducing stress in dementia

Jesse Russell-Williams , Wafa Jaroudi , Tania Perich , Siobhan Hoscheidt , Mohamad El Haj and Ahmed A. Moustafa EMAIL logo

Abstract

This study investigates the relationship between mindfulness, meditation, cognition and stress in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia, mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline. Accordingly, we explore how the use of meditation as a behavioural intervention can reduce stress and enhance cognition, which in turn ameliorates some dementia symptoms. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with any studies using meditation as an intervention for dementia or dementia-related memory conditions meeting inclusion criteria. Studies where moving meditation was the main intervention were excluded due to the possible confounding of exercise. Ten papers were identified and reviewed. There was a broad use of measures across all studies, with cognitive assessment, quality of life and perceived stress being the most common. Three studies used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure functional changes to brain regions during meditation. The interventions fell into the following three categories: mindfulness, most commonly mindfulness-based stress reduction (six studies); Kirtan Kriya meditation (three studies); and mindfulness-based Alzheimer’s stimulation (one study). Three of these studies were randomised controlled trials. All studies reported significant findings or trends towards significance in a broad range of measures, including a reduction of cognitive decline, reduction in perceived stress, increase in quality of life, as well as increases in functional connectivity, percent volume brain change and cerebral blood flow in areas of the cortex. Limitations and directions for future studies on meditation-based treatment for AD and stress management are suggested.

References

Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). Basics of Alzheimer’s disease: what it is and what you can do. Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/national/documents/brochure_basicsofalz_low.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Alzheimer’s Association. (2017). Medications for memory loss. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_standard_prescriptions.asp#cholinesterase.Search in Google Scholar

Alzheimer’s Disease International. (2015). World Alzheimer Report 2015: The Global Impact of Dementia. Retrieved from: https://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2015.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Archer, N., Brown, R.G., Reeves, S., Nicholas, H., Boothby, H., and Lovestone, S. (2009). Midlife Neuroticism and the age of onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Psychol. Med. 39, 665–673.10.1017/S003329170800408XSearch in Google Scholar

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Causes of death, Australia, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Azulay, J., Smart, C.M., Mott, T., and Cicerone, K.D. (2013). A pilot study examining the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on symptoms of chronic mild traumatic brain injury/postconcussive syndrome. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 28, 323–331.10.1097/HTR.0b013e318250ebdaSearch in Google Scholar

Baer, R.A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 10, 125–143.10.1093/clipsy.bpg015Search in Google Scholar

Berk, L., van Boxtel, M., and van Os, J. (2016). Can mindfulness-based interventions influence cognitive functioning in older adults? A review and considerations for future research. Aging Ment. Health 0, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2016. 1247423.10.1080/13607863.2016.1247423Search in Google Scholar

Bremner, J.D., Randall, P., Vermetten, E., Staib, L., Bronen, R.A., Mazure, C., Capelli, S., McCarthy, G., Innis, R.B., and Charney, D.S. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse – a preliminary report. Biol. Psychiatry 41, 23–32.10.1016/S0006-3223(96)00162-XSearch in Google Scholar

Brewer, J.A., Worhunsky, P.D., Gray, J.R., Tang, Y.-Y., Weber, J., and Kober, H. (2011). Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20254–20259.10.1073/pnas.1112029108Search in Google Scholar

Brown, L., Hansnata, E., and La, H.A. (2017). Economic cost of dementia in Australia. Alzheimer’s Australia, Canberra.Search in Google Scholar

Brunson, K.L., Kramár, E., Lin, B., Chen, Y., Colgin, L.L., Yanagihara, T.K., Lynch, G., and Baram, T.Z. (2005). Mechanisms of late-onset cognitive decline after early-life stress. J. Neurosci. 25, 9328–9338.10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2281-05.2005Search in Google Scholar

Buchanan, T.W., al’Absi, M., and Lovallo, W.R. (1999). Cortisol fluctuates with increases and decreases in negative affect. Psychoneuroendocrinology 24, 227–241.10.1016/S0306-4530(98)00078-XSearch in Google Scholar

Campbell, S. and MacQueen, G. (2004). The role of the hippocampus in the pathophysiology of major depression. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 29, 417–426.Search in Google Scholar

Carballedo, A., Lisiecka, D., Fagan, A., Saleh, K., Ferguson, Y., Connolly, G., Meaney, J., and Frodl, T. (2012). Early life adversity is associated with brain changes in subjects at family risk for depression. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 13, 569–578.10.3109/15622975.2012.661079Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Chang, Y.P., Yang, C.H., Chou, M.C., Chen, C.H., and Yang, Y. H. (2015). Clinical compliance of donepezil in treating Alzheimer’s disease in Taiwan. Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Demen. 30, 346–351.10.1177/1533317514556875Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Cherbuin, N., Kim, S., and Anstey, K.J. (2015). Dementia risk estimates associated with measures of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2015;5:e008853. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008853.10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008853Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, R.A., Grieve, S., Hoth, K.F., Paul, R.H., Sweet, L., Tate, D., Gunstad, J., Stroud, L., McCaffery, J., Hitsman, B., et al. (2006). Early life stress and morphometry of the adult anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nuclei. Biol. Psychiatry 59, 975–982.10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.12.016Search in Google Scholar

Davis, E.P., Glynn, L.M., Waffarn, F., and Sandman, C.A. (2011). Prenatal maternal stress programs infant stress regulation. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 52, 119–129.10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02314.xSearch in Google Scholar

de Kloet, E.R., Oitzl, M.S., and Joels, M. (1999). Stress and cognition: are corticosteroids good or bad guys? A synthesis of behavioural, electrophysiological and molecular studies that assesses the complexity of corticosterone-memory interactions, providing insight into how stress enhances and impairs memory. Trends Neurosci. 22, 422–426.10.1016/S0166-2236(99)01438-1Search in Google Scholar

Duman, R.S. (2002). Pathophysiology of depression: the concept of synaptic plasticity. Eur. Psychiatry 17, 306–310.10.1016/S0924-9338(02)00654-5Search in Google Scholar

Field, T. (2011). Prenatal depression effects on early development: a review. Infant Behav. Dev. 34, 1–14.10.1016/j.infbeh.2010.09.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Fox, K.C.R., Nijeboer, S., Dixon, M.L., Floman, J.L., Ellamil, M., Rumak, S.P., Sedlmeier, P., and Christoff, K. (2014). Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 43, 48–73.10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.016Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Frodl, T. and O’Keane, V. (2013). How does the brain deal with cumulative stress? A review with focus on developmental stress, HPA axis function and hippocampal structure in humans. Neurobiol. Dis. 52, 24–37.10.1016/j.nbd.2012.03.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Frodl, T., Reinhold, E., Koutsouleris, N., Reiser, M., and Meisenzahl, E.M. (2010). Interaction of childhood stress with hippocampus and prefrontal cortex volume reduction in major depression. J. Psychiatr. Res. 44, 799–807.10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.01.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Gard, T., Hölzel, B.K., and Lazar, S.W. (2014). The potential effects of meditation on age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1307, 89–103.10.1111/nyas.12348Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Gianaros, P.J., Jennings, J.R., Sheu, L.K., Greer, P.J., Kuller, L.H., and Matthews, K.A. (2007). Prospective reports of chronic life stress predict decreased grey matter volume in the hippocampus. Neuroimage, 35, 795–803.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.10.045Search in Google Scholar

Golier, J.A., Yehuda, R., De Santi, S., Segal, S., Dolan, S., and de Leon, M.J. (2005). Absence of hippocampal volume differences in survivors of the Nazi Holocaust with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 139, 53–64.10.1016/j.pscychresns.2005.02.007Search in Google Scholar

Gurvits, T.V., Shenton, M.E., Hokama, H., Ohta, H., Lasko, N.B., Gilbertson, M.W., Orr, S.P., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F.A., McCarley, R.W., et al. (1996). Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume in chronic, combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 40, 1091–1099.10.1016/S0006-3223(96)00229-6Search in Google Scholar

Greicius, M.D., Srivastava, G., Reiss, A.L., and Menon, V. (2004). Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer’s disease from healthy aging: Evidence from functional MRI. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4637–4642.10.1073/pnas.0308627101Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., and Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. J. Psychosom. Res. 57, 35–43.10.1111/j.2042-7166.2003.tb04008.xSearch in Google Scholar

Hofmann, S.G., Sawyer, A.T., Witt, A.A., and Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 78, 169–183.10.1037/a0018555Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Hölzel, B.K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S.M., Gard, T., and Lazar, S.W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging 191, 36–43.10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Innes, K.E. and Selfe, T.K. (2014). Meditation as a therapeutic intervention for adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease – potential benefits and underlying mechanisms. Front. Psychiatry, 5. 40.Search in Google Scholar

Innes, K.E., Selfe, T.K., Brown, C.J., Rose, K.M., and Thompson-Heisterman, A. (2012). The effects of meditation on perceived stress and related indices of psychological status and sympathetic activation in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers: a pilot study. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2012, e927509.10.1155/2012/927509Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Innes, K.E., Selfe, T.K., Khalsa, D.S., and Kandati, S. (2016a). A randomized controlled trial of two simple mind-body programs, Kirtan Kriya meditation and music listening, for adults with subjective cognitive decline: feasibility and acceptability. Complement. Ther. Med. 26, 98–107.10.1016/j.ctim.2016.03.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Innes, K.E., Selfe, T.K., Khalsa, D.S., and Kandati, S. (2016b). Effects of meditation versus music listening on perceived stress, mood, sleep, and quality of life in adults with early memory loss: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J. Alzheimers Dis. 52, 1277–1298.10.3233/JAD-151106Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Jang, J.H., Jung, W.H., Kang, D.-H., Byun, M.S., Kwon, S.J., Choi, C.-H., and Kwon, J.S. (2011). Increased default mode network connectivity associated with meditation. Neurosci. Lett. 487, 358–362.10.1016/j.neulet.2010.10.056Search in Google Scholar

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 4, 33–47.10.1016/0163-8343(82)90026-3Search in Google Scholar

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness (New York: Delta Books).Search in Google Scholar

Katz, M.J., Derby, C.A., Wang, C., Sliwinski, M.J., Ezzati, A., Zimmerman, M.E., Zwerling, J.L., and Lipton, R.B. (2016). Influence of perceived stress on incident amnestic mild cognitive impairment: Results from the Einstein Aging Study. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord 30, 93–98.10.1097/WAD.0000000000000125Search in Google Scholar

Khalsa, D.S. (2015). Stress, meditation, and Alzheimer’s disease prevention: where the evidence stands. J. Alzheimers Dis. 48, 1–12.10.3233/JAD-142766Search in Google Scholar

Kim, J.J. and Yoon, K.S. (1998). Stress: metaplastic effects in the hippocampus. Trends Neurosci. 21, 505–509.10.1016/S0166-2236(98)01322-8Search in Google Scholar

Kim, J.J. and Diamond, D.M. (2002). The stressed hippocampus, synaptic plasticity and lost memories. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 453.10.1038/nrn849Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Larouche, E., Hudon, C., and Goulet, S. (2015). Potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: an interdisciplinary perspective. Behav. Brain Res. 276, 199–212.10.1016/j.bbr.2014.05.058Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Lenze, E.J., Hickman, S., Hershey, T., Wendleton, L., Ly, K., Dixon, D., Doré, P., and Wetherell, J.L. (2014). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for older adults with worry symptoms and co-occurring cognitive dysfunction. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 29, 991–1000.10.1002/gps.4086Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Luders, E. (2014). Exploring age-related brain degeneration in meditation practitioners. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1307, 82–88.10.1111/nyas.12217Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Luders, E., Clark, K., Narr, K.L., and Toga, A.W. (2011). Enhanced brain connectivity in long-term meditation practitioners. Neuroimage 57, 1308–1316.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.05.075Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Lupien, S.J., Wilkinson, C.W., Briere, S., Menard, C., Ng Ying Kin, N.M., and Nair, N.P. (2002). The modulatory effects of corticosteroids on cognition: studies in young human populations. Psychoneuroendocrinology 27, 401–416.10.1016/S0306-4530(01)00061-0Search in Google Scholar

McEwen, B.S. (2000). Effects of adverse experiences for brain structure and function. Biol. Psychiatry 48, 721–731.10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00964-1Search in Google Scholar

McEwen, B.S. and Sapolsky, R.M. (1995). Stress and cognitive function. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 5, 205–216.10.1016/0959-4388(95)80028-XSearch in Google Scholar

Mesulam, M.-M. (1983). The functional anatomy and hemispheric specialization for directed attention: the role of the parietal lobe and its connectivity. Trends Neurosci. 6, 384–387.10.1016/0166-2236(83)90171-6Search in Google Scholar

Newberg, A.B., Wintering, N., Khalsa, D.S., Roggenkamp, H., and Waldman, M.R. (2010). Meditation effects on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow in subjects with memory loss: a preliminary study. J. Alzheimers Dis. 20, 517–526.10.3233/JAD-2010-1391Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Newberg, A.B., Serruya, M., Wintering, N., Moss, A.S., Reibel, D., and Monti, D.A. (2014). Meditation and neurodegenerative diseases. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1307, 112–123.10.1111/nyas.12187Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Nima, A.A., Rosenberg, P., Archer, T., and Garcia, D. (2013). Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression. PLoS One 8, e73265.10.1371/journal.pone.0073265Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Paller, K.A., Creery, J.D., Florczak, S.M., Weintraub, S., Mesulam, M.-M., Reber, P.J., Kiragu, J., Rooks, J., Safron, A., Morhardt D., et al. (2015). Benefits of mindfulness training for patients with progressive cognitive decline and their caregivers. Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Demen. 30, 257–267.10.1177/1533317514545377Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Petersen, R.C., Doody, R., Kurz, A., Mohs, R.C., Morris, J.C., Rabins, P.V., Ritchie, K., Rossor, M., Thal, L., and Winblad, B. (2001). Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Arch. Neurol. 58, 1985–1992.10.1001/archneur.58.12.1985Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Phelps, E.A. (2004). Human emotion and memory: interactions of the amygdala and hippocampal complex. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 14, 198–202.10.1016/j.conb.2004.03.015Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Quintana-Hernández, D.J., Miró-Barrachina, M.T., Ibáñez-Fernández, I.J., Pino, A.S., Quintana-Montesdeoca, M.P., Rodríguez-de Vera, B., Morales-Casanova, D., Pérez-Vieitez Mdel, C., Rodríguez-García, J., and Bravo-Caraduje, N. (2016). Mindfulness in the maintenance of cognitive capacities in Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized clinical trial. J. Alzheimers Dis. 50, 217–232.10.3233/JAD-143009Search in Google Scholar

Santina, P.D. (1997). The Tree of Enlightenment (Taipei: The Corporate Body of the Buddha Education Foundation).Search in Google Scholar

Saxe, R. and Kanwisher, N. (2003). People thinking about thinking people: the role of the temporo-parietal junction in “theory of mind.” Neuroimage 19, 1835–1842.10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00230-1Search in Google Scholar

Seltzer, B., Zolnouni, P., Nunez, M., Goldman, R., Kumar, D., Ieni, J., and Richardson, S. (2004). Efficacy of donepezil in early-stage Alzheimer disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Arch. Neurol. 61, 1852–1856.10.1001/archneur.61.12.1852Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Smart, C.M., Segalowitz, S.J., Mulligan, B.P., and MacDonald, S.W. (2014). Attention capacity and self-report of subjective cognitive decline: A P3 ERP study. Biol. Psychol. 103, 144–151.10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.08.016Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Smart, C.M., Segalowitz, S.J., Mulligan, B.P., Koudys, J., and Gawryluk, J.R. (2016). Mindfulness training for older adults with subjective cognitive decline: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial. J. Alzheimers Dis. 52, 757–774.10.3233/JAD-150992Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Sorg, C., Riedl, V., Mühlau, M., Calhoun, V.D., Eichele, T., Läer, L., Drzezga, A., Förstl, H., Kurz, A., Zimmer, C., et al. (2007). Selective changes of resting-state networks in individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18760–18765.10.1073/pnas.0708803104Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Stein, M.B., Koverola, C., Hanna, C., Torchia, M.G., and McClarty, B. (1997). Hippocampal volume in women victimized by childhood sexual abuse. Psychol. Med. 27, 951–959.10.1017/S0033291797005242Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Tang, Y.Y., Holzel, B.K., and Posner, M.I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 16, 213–225.10.1007/978-3-319-46322-3Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, V.A., Daneault, V., Grant, J., Scavone, G., Breton, E., Roffe-Vidal, S., Courtemanche, J., Lavarenne, A.S., Marrelec, G., Benali, H., et al. (2013). Impact of meditation training on the default mode network during a restful state. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 8, 4–14.10.1093/scan/nsr087Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Utto, M., Vasterling, J.J., Brailey, K. and Sutker, P.B. (1993). Memory and attention in combat related posttraumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD). J. Psychopathol. Behav. Assess. 15, 43–52.10.1007/BF00964322Search in Google Scholar

van Harmelen, A.L., van Tol, M.J., van der Wee, N.J., Veltman, D.J., Aleman, A., Spinhoven, P., van Buchem, M.A., Zitman, F.G., Penninx, B.W., and Elzinga, B.M. (2010). Reduced medial prefrontal cortex volume in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Biol. Psychiatry 68, 832–838.10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.06.011Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Wagner, A.D., Shannon, B.J., Kahn, I., and Buckner, R.L. (2005). Parietal lobe contributions to episodic memory retrieval. Trends Cogn. Sci. 9, 445–453.10.1016/j.tics.2005.07.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Wells, R.E., Kerr, C.E., Wolkin, J., Dossett, M., Davis, R.B., Walsh, J., Wall, R.B., Kong, J., Kaptchuk, T., Yeh, G., et al. (2013a). Meditation for adults with mild cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized trial. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 61, 642–645.10.1111/jgs.12179Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Wells, R.E., Yeh, G.Y., Kerr, C.E., Wolkin, J., Davis, R.B., Tan, Y., Spaeth, R., Wall, R.B., Walsh, J., Kaptchuk, T.J., et al. (2013b). Meditation’s impact on default mode network and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Neurosci. Lett. 556, 15–19.10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Weniger, G., Lange, C., Sachsse, U., and Irle, E. (2008). Amygdala and hippocampal volumes and cognition in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 118, 281–290.10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01246.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Wilson, R.S., Arnold, S.E., Schneider, J.A., Li, Y., and Bennett, D.A. (2007a). Chronic distress, age-related neuropathology, and late-life dementia. Psychosom. Med. 69, 47–53.10.1097/01.psy.0000250264.25017.21Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Wilson, R.S., Schneider, J.A., Boyle, P.A., Arnold, S.E., Tang, Y., and Bennett, D.A. (2007b). Chronic distress and incidence of mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 68, 2085–2092.10.1212/01.wnl.0000264930.97061.82Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Wilson, R.S., Begeny, C.T., Boyle, P.A., Schneider, J.A., and Bennett, D.A. (2011). Vulnerability to stress, anxiety, and development of dementia in old age. Am. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 19, 327–334.10.1097/JGP.0b013e31820119daSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Young, A.H., Sahakian, B.J., Robbins, T.W., Cowen, P.J. (1999). The effects of chronic administration of hydrocortisone on cognitive function in normal male volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 145, 260–266.10.1007/s002130051057Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Zylowska L., Ackerman D.L., Yang, M.H., Futrell, J.L., Horton, N.L., Hale, T.S., Pataki, C., and Smalley, S.L. (2008). Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: A feasibility study. J. Atten. Disord. 11, 737–746.10.1177/1087054707308502Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2017-08-11
Accepted: 2017-12-08
Published Online: 2018-02-21
Published in Print: 2018-09-25

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 9.12.2022 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/revneuro-2017-0066/html
Scroll Up Arrow