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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 12, 2019

Melatonin and its anti-glioma functions: a comprehensive review

Sayantan Maitra, Debanjan Bhattacharya, Stabak Das and Subhrajit Bhattacharya ORCID logo

Abstract

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a naturally synthesized hormone secreted from the pineal gland in a variety of animals and is primarily involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm, which is the natural cycle controlling sleep in organisms. Melatonin acts on specific receptors and has an important role in overall energy metabolism. This review encompasses several aspects of melatonin activity, such as synthesis, source, structure, distribution, function, signaling and its role in normal physiology. The review highlights the cellular signaling and messenger systems involved in melatonin’s action on the body and their wider implications, the distribution and diverse action of different melatonin receptors in specific areas of the brain, and the pharmacological agonists and antagonists that have specific action on these melatonin receptors. This review also incorporates the antitumor effects of melatonin in considerable detail, emphasizing on melatonin’s role as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in glioma treatment. We conclude that the diminishing levels of melatonin have significant debilitating effects on normal physiology and can also be associated with malignant conditions such as glioma. Based on the review of the available evidence, our study provides a broad platform for a better understanding of the specific roles of melatonin and serves as a starting point for further investigation into the therapeutic effect of melatonin in glioma as an adjuvant therapeutic agent.

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Received: 2018-04-25
Accepted: 2018-09-07
Published Online: 2019-01-12
Published in Print: 2019-07-26

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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