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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 19, 2019

Perineuronal oligodendrocytes in health and disease: the journey so far

Hans-Gert Bernstein, Gerburg Keilhoff, Henrik Dobrowolny, Paul C. Guest and Johann Steiner

Abstract

Perineuronal oligodendrocytes (pn-Ols) are located in the cerebral gray matter in close proximity to neuronal perikarya and less frequently near dendrites and neurites. Although their morphology is indistinguishable from that of other oligodendrocytes, it is not known if pn-Ols have a similar or different cell signature from that of typical myelinating oligodendroglial cells. In this review, we discussed the potential roles of these cells in myelination under normal and pathophysiologic conditions as functional and nutritional supporters of neurons, as restrainers of neuronal firing, and as possible players in glutamate-glutamine homeostasis. We also highlighted the occurrences in which perineuronal oligodendroglia are altered, such as in experimental demyelination, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorder.

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Received: 2019-02-12
Accepted: 2019-06-01
Published Online: 2019-07-19
Published in Print: 2019-12-18

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