Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 24, 2022

Music affects functional brain connectivity and is effective in the treatment of neurological disorders

  • Luisa Speranza , Salvatore Pulcrano ORCID logo EMAIL logo , Carla Perrone-Capano , Umberto di Porzio and Floriana Volpicelli ORCID logo


In a million years, under the pressure of natural selection, hominins have acquired the abilities for vocal learning, music, and language. Music is a relevant human activity, highly effective in enhancing sociality, is a universal experience common to all known human cultures, although it varies in rhythmic and melodic complexity. It has been part of human life since the beginning of our history, or almost, and it strengthens the mother-baby relation even within the mother’s womb. Music engages multiple cognitive functions, and promotes attention, concentration, imagination, creativity, elicits memories and emotions, and stimulates imagination, and harmony of movement. It changes the chemistry of the brain, by inducing the release of neurotransmitters and hormones (dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin) and activates the reward and prosocial systems. In addition, music is also used to develop new therapies necessary to alleviate severe illness, especially neurological disorders, and brain injuries.

Corresponding author: Salvatore Pulcrano, Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, “Adriano Buzzati-Traverso”, C.N.R., Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy; and Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy, E-mail:

Funding source: Regione Campania

Award Identifier / Grant number: POR Campania FESR 2014/2020 - Project N. B61G18000

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: This work was supported by “POR Campania FESR 2014/2020” (Project N. B61G18000470007) from Regione Campania, Italy, Progetto 000005_2018_RARE.PLAT.NET and 000005_BUDGET_ECONOMICO_RICERCA_2020.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that the review was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationship that could be constructed as a potential conflict of interest.


Allen, J.L., McKay, J.L., Sawers, A., Hackney, M.E., and Ting, L.H. (2017). Increased neuromuscular consistency in gait and balance after partnered, dance-based rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurophysiol. 118: 363–373, in Google Scholar

Altenmüller, E. and Furuya, S. (2017). Apollos gift and curse: making music as a model for adaptive and maladaptive plasticity. eNeuroforum 23: 57–75.10.1515/nf-2016-A054Search in Google Scholar

Altenmüller, E. and James, C. (2020). The impact of music interventions on motor rehabilitation following stroke in elderly. In: Cuddy, L., Belleville, S., and Moussard, A. (Eds.), Handbook music and the aging brain. Elsevier/Academic Press, Cambridge, USA, pp. 407–432.10.1016/B978-0-12-817422-7.00016-XSearch in Google Scholar

Amengual, J.L., Rojo, N., Veciana de Las Heras, M., Marco-Pallarés, J., Grau-Sánchez, J., Schneider, S., Vaquero, L., Juncadella, M., Montero, J., Mohammadi, B., et al.. (2013). Sensorimotor plasticity after music-supported therapy in chronic stroke patients revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. PLoS One 8: e61883, in Google Scholar

Amunts, K., Schlaug, G., Jäncke, L., Steinmetz, H., Schleicher, A., Dabringhaus, A., and Zilles, K. (1997). Motor cortex and hand motor skills: structural compliance in the human brain. Hum. Brain Mapp. 5: 206–215,<206::aid-hbm5>;2-7.10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:3<206::AID-HBM5>3.0.CO;2-7Search in Google Scholar

Azam, S., Haque, M.E., Balakrishnan, R., Kim, I.S., and Choi, D.K. (2021). The ageing brain: molecular and cellular basis of neurodegeneration. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 9: 683459, in Google Scholar

Baird, A. and Thompson, W.F. (2018). The impact of music on the self in dementia. J. Alzheimers Dis. 61: 827–841, in Google Scholar

Baker, L.D., Frank, L.L., Foster-Schubert, K., Green, P.S., Wilkinson, C.W., McTiernan, A., Plymate, S.R., Fishel, M.A., Watson, G.S., Cholerton, B.A., et al.. (2010). Effects of aerobic exercise on mild cognitive impairment: a controlled trial. Arch. Neurol. 67: 71–79, in Google Scholar

Balbag, M.A., Pedersen, N.L., and Gatz, M. (2014). Playing a musical instrument as a protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment: a population-based twin study. Int. J. Alzheimer’s Dis. 2014: 836748, in Google Scholar

Bangerter, A. and Heath, C. (2004). The Mozart effect: tracking the evolution of a scientific legend. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 43: 605–623, in Google Scholar

Barrett, F.S., Preller, K.H., Herdener, M., Janata, P., and Vollenweider, F.X. (2018). Serotonin 2A receptor signaling underlies LSD-induced alteration of the neural response to dynamic changes in music. Cerebr. Cortex 28: 3939–3950, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Batson, G., Hugenschmidt, C.E., and Soriano, C.T. (2016). Verbal auditory cueing of improvisational dance: a proposed method for training agency in Parkinson’s disease. Front. Neurol. 7: 15, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Bella, S.D., Benoit, C.E., Farrugia, N., Keller, P.E., Obrig, H., Mainka, S., and Kotz, S.A. (2017). Gait improvement via rhythmic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease is linked to rhythmic skills. Sci. Rep. 7: 42005, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Benz, S., Sellaro, R., Hommel, B., and Colzato, L.S. (2016). Music makes the world go round: the impact of musical training on non-musical cognitive functions. Front. Psychol. 6: 2023, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Bishop, N.A., Lu, T., and Yankner, B.A. (2010). Neural mechanisms of ageing and cognitive decline. Nature 464: 529–535, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Blood, A.J. and Zatorre, R.J. (2001). Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98: 11818–11823, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Bugos, J.A., Perlstein, W.M., McCrae, C.S., Brophy, T.S., and Bedenbaugh, P.H. (2007). Individualized piano instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults. Aging Ment. Health 11: 464–471, in Google Scholar PubMed

Burns, A. and Iliffe, S. (2009). Alzheimer’s disease. Br. Med. J. 338: b158, in Google Scholar PubMed

Butzlaff, R. (2000). Can music be used to teach reading? J. Aesthetic. Educ. 34: 167–178, in Google Scholar

Chanda, M.L. and Levitin, D.J. (2013). The neurochemistry of music. Trends Cognit. Sci. 17: 179–193, in Google Scholar PubMed

Colucci-D’Amato, L., Speranza, L., and Volpicelli, F. (2020). Neurotrophic factor BDNF, physiological functions and therapeutic potential in depression, neurodegeneration and brain cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21: 7777.10.3390/ijms21207777Search in Google Scholar

Cortese, M.D., Riganello, F., Arcuri, F., Pignataro, L.M., and Buglione, I. (2015). Rehabilitation of aphasia: application of melodic-rhythmic therapy to Italian language. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 9: 520, in Google Scholar

Crispino, M., Volpicelli, F., and Perrone-Capano, C. (2020). Role of the serotonin receptor 7 in brain plasticity: from development to disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21: 505, in Google Scholar

Degé, F. and Kerkovius, K. (2018). The effects of drumming on working memory in older adults. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1423: 242–250.10.1111/nyas.13685Search in Google Scholar

Eisinger, B.E. and Zhao, X. (2018). Identifying molecular mediators of environmentally enhanced neurogenesis. Cell Tissue Res. 371: 7–21, in Google Scholar

Elbert, T., Pantev, C., Wienbruch, C., Rockstroh, B., and Taub, E. (1995). Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science 270: 305–307, in Google Scholar

Evers, S. and Suhr, B. (2000). Changes of the neurotransmitter serotonin but not of hormones during short time music perception. Eur. Arch. Psychiatr. Clin. Neurosci. 250: 144–147, in Google Scholar

Feduccia, A.A. and Duvauchelle, C.L. (2008). Auditory stimuli enhance MDMA-conditioned reward and MDMA-induced nucleus accumbens dopamine, serotonin and locomotor responses. Brain Res. Bull. 77: 189–196, in Google Scholar

Feigin, V.L., Forouzanfar, M.H., Krishnamurthi, R., Mensah, G.A., Connor, M., Bennett, D.A., Moran, A.E., Sacco, R.L., Anderson, L., Truelsen, T., et al.. (2014). Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990–2010: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet 383: 245–254, in Google Scholar

Ferreri, L., Mas-Herrero, E., Zatorre, R.J., Ripollés, P., Gomez-Andres, A., Alicart, H., Olivé, G., Marco-Pallarés, J., Antonijoan, R.M., Valle, M., et al.. (2019). Dopamine modulates the reward experiences elicited by music. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116: 3793–3798, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Ferreri, L., Mas‐Herrero, E., Cardona, G., Zatorre, R.J., Antonijoan, R.M., Valle, M., Riba, J., Ripollés, P., and Rodriguez‐Fornells, A. (2021). Dopamine modulations of reward‐driven music memory consolidation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1502: 85–98, in Google Scholar PubMed

Fjell, A.M. and Walhovd, K.B. (2010). Structural brain changes in aging: courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Rev. Neurosci. 21: 187–221, in Google Scholar PubMed

Forgeard, M., Winner, E., Norton, A., and Schlaug, G. (2008). Practicing a musical instrument in childhood is associated with enhanced verbal ability and nonverbal reasoning. PLoS One 3: e3566, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Frisoni, G.B., Pievani, M., Testa, C., Sabattoli, F., Bresciani, L., Bonetti, M., Beltramello, A., Hayashi, K.M., Toga, A.W., and Thompson, P.M. (2007). The topography of grey matter involvement in early and late onset Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 130: 720–730, in Google Scholar PubMed

Frisoni, G.B., Fox, N.C., Jack, C.R., Scheltens, P., and Thompson, P.M. (2010). The clinical use of structural MRI in Alzheimer disease. Nat. Rev. Neurol. 6: 67–77, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

García-Casares, N., Martín-Colom, J.E., and García-Arnés, J.A. (2018). Music therapy in Parkinson’s disease. J. Am. Med. Dir. Assoc. 19: 1054–1062.10.1016/j.jamda.2018.09.025Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Gaser, C. and Schlaug, G. (2003). Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians. J. Neurosci. 23: 9240–9245, in Google Scholar

Geretsegger, M., Elefant, C., Mössler, K.A., and Gold, C. (2014). Music therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2014: CD004381, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Gómez-Gallego, M., Gómez-Gallego, J.C., Gallego-Mellado, M., and García-García, J. (2021). Comparative efficacy of active group music intervention versus group music listening in Alzheimer’s disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Publ. Health 18: 8067.10.3390/ijerph18158067Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Gordon, R.L., Fehd, H.M., and McCandliss, B.D. (2015). Does music training enhance literacy skills? A meta-analysis. Front. Psychol. 6: 1777, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Grau-Sánchez, J., Münte, T.F., Altenmüller, E., Duarte, E., and Rodríguez-Fornells, A. (2020). Potential benefits of music playing in stroke upper limb motor rehabilitation. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 112: 585–599.10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.02.027Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Groussard, M., La Joie, R., Rauchs, G., Landeau, B., Chételat, G., Viader, F., Desgranges, B., Eustache, F., and Platel, H. (2010). When music and long-term memory interact: effects of musical expertise on functional and structural plasticity in the hippocampus. PLoS One 5: e13225, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Guétin, S., Portet, F., Picot, M.C., Pommié, C., Messaoudi, M., Djabelkir, L., Olsen, A.L., Cano, M.M., Lecourt, E., and Touchon, J. (2009). Effect of music therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with Alzheimer’s type dementia: randomised, controlled study. Dement. Geriatr. Cognit. Disord. 28: 36–46, in Google Scholar PubMed

Guo, X., Yamashita, M., Suzuki, M., Ohsawa, C., Asano, K., Abe, N., Soshi, T., and Sekiyama, K. (2021). Musical instrument training program improves verbal memory and neural efficiency in novice older adults. Hum. Brain Mapp. 42: 1359–1375, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Haber, S.N. (2011). Neuroanatomy of reward: a view from the ventral striatum. In: Gottfired, J.A. (Ed.), Handbook of neurobiology of sensation and reward. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, USA, pp. 235–262.Search in Google Scholar

Han, E.Y., Yun, J.Y., Chong, H.J., and Choi, K.G. (2018). Individual therapeutic singing program for vocal quality and depression in Parkinson’s disease. J. Mov. Disord. 11: 121–128, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Hansen, N.C. and Keller, P.E. (2021). Oxytocin as an allostatic agent in the social bonding effects of music. Behav. Brain Sci. 44: e75, in Google Scholar PubMed

Harada, C.N., Natelson Love, M.C., and Triebel, K.L. (2013). Normal cognitive aging. Clin. Geriatr. Med. 29: 737–752, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Hardy, M.W. and Lagasse, A.B. (2013). Rhythm, movement, and autism: using rhythmic rehabilitation research as a model for autism. Front. Integr. Neurosci. 7: 19, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Hodges, D.A. (2010). Psychophysiological responses to music. In: Juslin, P.N. (Ed.), Handbook of music and emotion: theory, research, applications. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 279–311.Search in Google Scholar

Hou, L., Chen, W., Liu, X., Qiao, D., and Zhou, F.M. (2017). Exercise-induced neuroprotection of the nigrostriatal dopamine system in Parkinson’s disease. Front. Aging Neurosci. 9: 358, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Hutchinson, S., Lee, L.H.L., Gaab, N., and Schlaug, G. (2003). Cerebellar volume of musicians. Cerebr. Cortex 13: 943–949, in Google Scholar PubMed

Jacobsen, J.H., Stelzer, J., Fritz, T.H., Chételat, G., la Joie, R., and Turner, R. (2015). Why musical memory can be preserved in advanced Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 138: 2438–2450, in Google Scholar

James, C.E., Britz, J., Vuilleumier, P., Hauert, C.A., and Michel, C.M. (2008). Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts. Neuroimage 42: 1597–1608, in Google Scholar

James, C.E., Altenmüller, E., Kliegel, M., Krüger, T., Van De Ville, D., Worschech, F., Abdili, L., Scholz, D.S., Jünemann, K., Hering, A., et al.. (2020). Train the brain with music (TBM): brain plasticity and cognitive benefits induced by musical training in elderly people in Germany and Switzerland, a study protocol for an RCT comparing musical instrumental practice to sensitization to music. BMC Geriatr. 20: 418, in Google Scholar

Jaschke, A.C., Honing, H., and Scherder, E.J.A. (2018). Exposure to a musically-enriched environment; its relationship with executive functions, short-term memory and verbal IQ in primary school children. PLoS One 13: e0207265, in Google Scholar

Jasemi, M., Aazami, S., and Zabihi, R. (2016). The effects of music therapy on anxiety and depression of cancer patients. Indian J. Palliat. Care 22: 455–458, in Google Scholar

Katagiri, J. (2009). The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism. J. Music Ther. 46: 15–31, in Google Scholar

Kaup, A.R., Mirzakhanian, H., Jeste, D.V., and Eyler, L.T. (2011). A review of the brain structure correlates of successful cognitive aging. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 23: 6–15, in Google Scholar

Keenan, J.P., Thangaraj, V., Halpern, A.R., and Schlaug, G. (2001). Absolute pitch and planum temporale. Neuroimage 14: 1402–1408, in Google Scholar

Keller, S.S. and Roberts, N. (2009). Measurement of brain volume using MRI: software, techniques, choices and prerequisites. J. Anthropol. Sci. 87: 127–151.Search in Google Scholar

Kennelly, J. (2000). The specialist role of the music therapist in developmental programs for hospitalized children. J. Pediatr. Health Care 14: 56–59, in Google Scholar

Koelsch, S. (2014). Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15: 170–180, in Google Scholar PubMed

Köhler, F., Martin, Z.S., Hertrampf, R.S., Gäbel, C., Kessler, J., Ditzen, B., and Warth, M. (2020). Music therapy in the psychosocial treatment of adult cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front. Psychol. 11: 651.10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00651Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Lappe, C., Herholz, S.C., Trainor, L.J., and Pantev, C. (2008). Cortical plasticity induced by short-term unimodal and multimodal musical training. J. Neurosci. 28: 9632–9639, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Leggieri, M., Thaut, M.H., Fornazzari, L., Schweizer, T.A., Barfett, J., Munoz, D.G., and Fischer, C.E. (2019). Music intervention approaches for Alzheimer’s disease: a review of the literature. Front. Neurosci. 13: 132, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Li, Y., Xing, X., Shi, X., Yan, P., Chen, Y., Li, M., Zhang, W., Li, X., and Yang, K. (2020). The effectiveness of music therapy for patients with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Adv. Nurs. 76: 1111–1123, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lyu, J., Zhang, J., Mu, H., Li, W., Champ, M., Xiong, Q., Gao, T., Xie, L., Jin, W., Yang, W., et al.. (2018). The effects of music therapy on cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. J. Alzheimers Dis. 64: 1347–1358, in Google Scholar

Machado Sotomayor, M.J., Arufe-Giráldez, V., Ruíz-Rico, G., and Navarro-Patón, R. (2021). Music therapy and Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review from 2015–2020. Int. J. Environ. Res. Publ. Health 18: 11618, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Maguire, E.A., Woollett, K., and Spiers, H.J. (2006). London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis. Hippocampus 16: 1091–1101, in Google Scholar PubMed

Mallik, A., Chanda, M.L., and Levitin, D.J. (2017). Anhedonia to music and mu-opioids: evidence from the administration of naltrexone. Sci. Rep. 7: 41952, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Martínez-Molina, N., Mas-Herrero, E., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., Zatorre, R.J., and Marco-Pallarés, J. (2016). Neural correlates of specific musical anhedonia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113: E7337–E7345.10.1073/pnas.1611211113Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Mas-Herrero, E., Dagher, A., and Zatorre, R.J. (2018). Modulating musical reward sensitivity up and down with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Nat. Hum. Behav. 2: 27–32, in Google Scholar PubMed

Mattson, M.P. and Arumugam, T.V. (2018). Hallmarks of brain aging: adaptive and pathological modification by metabolic states. Cell Metabol. 27: 1176–1199, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Mayer-Benarous, H., Benarous, X., Vonthron, F., and Cohen, D. (2021). Music therapy for children with autistic spectrum disorder and/or other neurodevelopmental disorders: a systematic review. Front. Psychiatr. 12: 643234, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

McKay, J.L., Ting, L.H., and Hackney, M.E. (2016). Balance, body motion and muscle activity after high-volume short-term dance-based rehabilitation in persons with Parkinson disease: a pilot study. J. Neurol. Phys. Ther. 40: 257–268, in Google Scholar

Mithen, S., Morley, I., Wray, A., Tallerman, M., and Gamble, C. (2005). The singing Neanderthals: the origins of music, language, mind and body. Camb. Archaeol. J. 16: 97–102.10.1017/S0959774306000060Search in Google Scholar

Moraes, M.M., Rabelo, P.C.R., Pinto, V.A., Pires, W., Wanner, S.P., Szawka, R.E., and Soares, D.D. (2018). Auditory stimulation by exposure to melodic music increases dopamine and serotonin activities in rat forebrain areas linked to reward and motor control. Neurosci. Lett. 673: 73–78, in Google Scholar PubMed

Müller, K.U., Gan, G., Banaschewski, T., Barker, G.J., Bokde, A.L.W., Büchel, C., Conrod, P., Fauth-Bühler, M., Flor, H., Gallinat, J., et al.. (2015). No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls. Addiction Biol. 20: 534–545, in Google Scholar PubMed

Nakafuku, M. and Águila, Á. (2020). Developmental dynamics of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the postnatal mammalian brain in health and disease: historical and future perspectives. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Dev. Biol. 9: e369, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Narme, P., Clément, S., Ehrlé, N., Schiaratura, L., Vachez, S., Courtaigne, B., Munsch, F., and Samson, S. (2013). Efficacy of musical interventions in dementia: evidence from a randomized controlled trial. J. Alzheimers Dis. 38: 359–369, in Google Scholar PubMed

Nys, G.M.S., van Zandvoort, M.J.E., de Kort, P.L.M., Jansen, B.P.W., de Haan, E.H.F., and Kappelle, L.J. (2007). Cognitive disorders in acute stroke: prevalence and clinical determinants. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 23: 408–416, in Google Scholar PubMed

Oechslin, M.S., Descloux, C., Croquelois, A., Chanal, J., Van De Ville, D., Lazeyras, F., and James, C.E. (2013). Hippocampal volume predicts fluid intelligence in musically trained people. Hippocampus 23: 552–558, in Google Scholar PubMed

Pasiali, V. and Clark, C. (2018). Evaluation of a music therapy social skills development program for youth with limited resources. J. Music Ther. 55: 280–308, in Google Scholar PubMed

Pereira, A.P.S., Marinho, V., Gupta, D., Magalhães, F., Ayres, C., and Teixeira, S. (2019). Music therapy and dance as gait rehabilitation in patients with Parkinson disease: a review of evidence. J. Geriatr. Psychiatr. Neurol. 32: 49–56, in Google Scholar PubMed

Peretz, I. (1996). Can we lose memory for music? A case of music agnosia in a nonmusician. J. Cognit. Neurosci. 8: 481–496, in Google Scholar PubMed

Perrone-Capano, C., Volpicelli, F., and di Porzio, U. (2017). Biological bases of human musicality. Rev. Neurosci. 28: 235–245, in Google Scholar PubMed

Preller, K.H. and Vollenweider, F.X. (2018). Phenomenology, structure, and dynamic of psychedelic states. Curr. Top Behav. Neurosci. 36: 221–256, in Google Scholar PubMed

Quintin, E.M. (2019). Music-evoked reward and emotion: relative strengths and response to intervention of people with ASD. Front. Neural Circ. 13: 49, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Raz, N., Lindenberger, U., Rodrigue, K.M., Kennedy, K.M., Head, D., Williamson, A., Dahle, C., Gerstorf, D., and Acker, J.D. (2005). Regional brain changes in aging healthy adults: general trends, individual differences and modifiers. Cerebr. Cortex 15: 1676–1689, in Google Scholar PubMed

Reidy, J. and MacDonald, M.C. (2021). Use of palliative care music therapy in a hospital setting during COVID-19. J. Palliat. Med. 24: 1603–1605, in Google Scholar PubMed

Reybrouck, M., Vuust, P., and Brattico, E. (2018). Music and brain plasticity: how sounds trigger neurogenerative adaptations. In: Chaban, V. (Ed.), Neuroplasticity - insights of neural reorganization. InTech Open, London, UK, pp. 85–103.10.5772/intechopen.74318Search in Google Scholar

Ribeiro, F.S., Lessa, J.P.A., Delmolin, G., and Santos, F.H. (2021). Music listening in times of COVID-19 outbreak: a brazilian study. Front. Psychol. 12: 647473, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Ripollés, P., Rojo, N., Grau-Sánchez, J., Amengual, J.L., Càmara, E., Marco-Pallarés, J., Juncadella, M., Vaquero, L., Rubio, F., Duarte, E., et al.. (2016). Music supported therapy promotes motor plasticity in individuals with chronic stroke. Brain Imaging Behav. 10: 1289–1307.10.1007/s11682-015-9498-xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Sala, G. and Gobet, F. (2017). When the music’s over. Does music skill transfer to children’s and young adolescents’ cognitive and academic skills? A meta-analysis. Educ. Res. Rev. 20: 55–67, in Google Scholar

Salimpoor, V.N., Benovoy, M., Larcher, K., Dagher, A., and Zatorre, R.J. (2011). Anatomically distinct dopamine release during anticipation and experience of peak emotion to music. Nat. Neurosci. 14: 257–262, in Google Scholar PubMed

Salimpoor, V.N., van den Bosch, I., Kovacevic, N., McIntosh, A.R., Dagher, A., and Zatorre, R.J. (2013). Interactions between the nucleus accumbens and auditory cortices predict music reward value. Science 340: 216–219, in Google Scholar PubMed

Salthouse, T.A. (2011). Neuroanatomical substrates of age-related cognitive decline. Psychol. Bull. 137: 753–784, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Samson, S. and Peretz, I. (2005). Effects of prior exposure on music liking and recognition in patients with temporal lobe lesions. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1060: 419–428, in Google Scholar PubMed

Särkämö, T., Tervaniemi, M., Laitinen, S., Forsblom, A., Soinila, S., Mikkonen, M., Autti, T., Silvennoinen, H.M., Erkkilä, J., Laine, M., et al.. (2008). Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke. Brain 131: 866–876, in Google Scholar PubMed

Särkämö, T., Ripollés, P., Vepsäläinen, H., Autti, T., Silvennoinen, H.M., Salli, E., Laitinen, S., Forsblom, A., Soinila, S., and Rodríguez-Fornells, A. (2014). Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8: 245.10.3389/fnhum.2014.00245Search in Google Scholar

Satoh, M., Yuba, T., Tabei, K., Okubo, Y., Kida, H., Sakuma, H., and Tomimoto, H. (2015). Music therapy using singing training improves psychomotor speed in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a neuropsychological and fMRI study. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Dis. Extra 5: 296–308, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Schellenberg, E.G. (2006). Long-term positive associations between music lessons and IQ. BMC Psychol. 98: 457–468, in Google Scholar

Schlaug, G., Jancke, L., Huang, Y., and Steinmetz, H. (1995). In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 267: 699–701, in Google Scholar PubMed

Schlaug, G. (2001). The brain of musicians. A model for functional and structural adaptation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 930: 281–299, in Google Scholar

Schlaug, G., Norton, A., Marchina, S., Zipse, L., and Wan, C.Y. (2010). From singing to speaking: facilitating recovery from nonfluent aphasia. Future Neurol. 5: 657–665, in Google Scholar

Schneider, P., Sluming, V., Roberts, N., Scherg, M., Goebel, R., Specht, H.J., Dosch, H.G., Bleeck, S., Stippich, C., and Rupp, A. (2005). Structural and functional asymmetry of lateral Heschl’s gyrus reflects pitch perception preference. Nat. Neurosci. 8: 1241–1247, in Google Scholar

Seinfeld, S., Figueroa, H., Ortiz-Gil, J., and Sanchez-Vives, M.V. (2013). Effects of music learning and piano practice on cognitive function, mood and quality of life in older adults. Front. Psychol. 4: 810–813, in Google Scholar

Sharma, S.R., Gonda, X., and Tarazi, F.I. (2018). Autism spectrum disorder: classification, diagnosis and therapy. Pharmacol. Ther. 190: 91–104, in Google Scholar

Sihvonen, A.J., Särkämö, T., Leo, V., Tervaniemi, M., Altenmüller, E., and Soinila, S. (2017). Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation. Lancet Neurol. 16: 648–660, in Google Scholar

Sihvonen, A.J., Ripollés, P., Leo, V., Saunavaara, J., Parkkola, R., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., Soinila, S., and Särkämö, T. (2021). Vocal music listening enhances post-stroke language network reorganization. eNeuro 8, in Google Scholar

Singh, V., Chertkow, H., Lerch, J.P., Evans, A.C., Dorr, A.E., and Kabani, N.J. (2006). Spatial patterns of cortical thinning in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 129: 2885–2893, in Google Scholar PubMed

Slavin, D. and Fabus, R. (2018). A case study using a multimodal approach to melodic intonation therapy. Am. J. Speech Lang. Pathol 27: 1352–1362, in Google Scholar PubMed

Sluming, V., Barrick, T., Howard, M., Cezayirli, E., Mayes, A., and Roberts, N. (2002). Voxel-based morphometry reveals increased gray matter density in Broca’s area in male symphony orchestra musicians. Neuroimage 17: 1613–1622, in Google Scholar PubMed

Sowell, E.R., Peterson, B.S., Thompson, P.M., Welcome, S.E., Henkenius, A.L., and Toga, A.W. (2003). Mapping cortical change across the human life span. Nat. Neurosci. 6: 309–315, in Google Scholar PubMed

Speranza, L., di Porzio, U., Viggiano, D., de Donato, A., and Volpicelli, F. (2021). Dopamine: the meuromodulator of long-term synaptic plasticity, reward and movement control. Cells 10: 735, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Srinivasan, S.M., Park, I.K., Neelly, L.B., and Bhat, A.N. (2015). A comparison of the effects of rhythm and robotic interventions on repetitive behaviors and affective states of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Res. Autism Spectr. Disord. 18: 51–63, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Stadley, J.M. (2008). Does music instruction help children learn to read? Evidence of a meta-analysis. Update Univ. S. C. Dep. Music 27: 17–32.10.1177/8755123308322270Search in Google Scholar

Sutcliffe, R., Du, K., and Ruffman, T. (2020). Music making and neuropsychological aging: a review. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 113: 479–491, in Google Scholar PubMed

Tabei, K., Satoh, M., Nakano, C., Ito, A., Shimoji, Y., Kida, H., Sakuma, H., and Tomimoto, H. (2016). Improved neural processing efficiency in a chronic aphasia patient following melodic intonation therapy: a neuropsychological and functional MRI study. Front. Neurol. 7: 148, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Tomchek, S.D. and Dunn, W. (2007). Sensory processing in children with and without autism: a comparative study using the short sensory profile. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 61: 190–200, in Google Scholar PubMed

Thompson, P.M., Hayashi, K.M., de Zubicaray, G., Janke, A.L., Rose, S.E., Semple, J., Herman, D., Hong, M.S., Dittmer, S.S., Doddrell, D.M., et al.. (2003). Dynamics of gray matter loss in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Neurosci. 23: 994–1005, in Google Scholar

Van Hoesen, G.W. (2000). Orbitofrontal cortex pathology in Alzheimer’s disease. Cerebr. Cortex 10: 243–251, in Google Scholar PubMed

Vanstone, A.D. and Cuddy, L.L. (2009). Musical memory in Alzheimer disease. Neuropsychol. Dev. Cogn. B Aging Neuropsychol. Cogn. 17: 108–128, in Google Scholar PubMed

Villain, N., Chételat, G., Grassiot, B., Bourgeat, P., Jones, G., Ellis, K.A., Ames, D., Martins, R.N., Eustache, F., Salvado, O., et al.. (2012). Regional dynamics of amyloid-β deposition in healthy elderly, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: a voxelwise PiB-PET longitudinal study. Brain 135: 2126–2139, in Google Scholar PubMed

Volpicelli, F., Perrone-Capano, C., Bellenchi, G.C., Colucci-D’Amato, L., and di Porzio, U. (2020). Molecular regulation in dopaminergic neuron development. Cues to unveil molecular pathogenesis and pharmacological targets of neurodegeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21: 3995, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Voss, P., Thomas, M.E., Cisneros-Franco, J.M., and de Villers-Sidani, É. (2017). Dynamic brains and the changing rules of neuroplasticity: implications for learning and recovery. Front. Psychol. 8: 1657, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Wan, C.Y. and Schlaug, G. (2010). Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span. Neuroscientist 16: 566–577, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Wan, C.Y., Zheng, X., Marchina, S., Norton, A., and Schlaug, G. (2014). Intensive therapy induces contralateral white matter changes in chronic stroke patients with Broca’s aphasia. Brain Lang. 136: 1–7, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Whitall, J., Waller, S.M., Sorkin, J.D., Forrester, L.W., Macko, R.F., Hanley, D.F., Goldberg, A.P., and Luft, A. (2011). Bilateral and unilateral arm training improve motor function through differing neuroplastic mechanisms: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabilitation Neural Repair 25: 118–129, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Worschech, F., Marie, D., Jünemann, K., Sinke, C., Krüger, T., Großbach, M., Scholz, D.S., Abdili, L., Kliegel, M., James, C.E., et al.. (2021). Improved speech in noise perception in the elderly after 6 months of musical instruction. Front. Neurosci. 15: 696240, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Zald, D.H. and Zatorre, R.J. (2011). Music. In: Gottfried, J.A. (Ed.), Neurobiology of sensation and reward. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, USA, pp. 405–428.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, Y., Chen, G., Wen, H., Lu, K.H., and Liu, Z. (2017a). Musical imagery involves Wernicke’s area in bilateral and anti-correlated network interactions in musicians. Sci. Rep. 7: 17066, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Zhang, Y., Cai, J., An, L., Hui, F., Ren, T., Ma, H., and Zhao, Q. (2017b). Does music therapy enhance behavioral and cognitive function in elderly dementia patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Res. Rev. 35: 1–11, in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2021-10-09
Revised: 2022-02-23
Accepted: 2022-02-25
Published Online: 2022-03-24
Published in Print: 2022-10-26

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 2.3.2024 from
Scroll to top button