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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 2, 2022

Human serum albumin in neurodegeneration

Sajjad Shojai , Seyed-Ali Haeri Rohani , Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi and Mehran Habibi-Rezaei ORCID logo EMAIL logo


Serum albumin (SA) exists in relatively high concentrations, in close contact with most cells. However, in the adult brain, except for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), SA concentration is relatively low. It is mainly produced in the liver to serve as the main protein of the blood plasma. In the plasma, it functions as a carrier, chaperon, antioxidant, source of amino acids, osmoregulator, etc. As a carrier, it facilitates the stable presence and transport of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, including free fatty acids, steroid hormones, medicines, and metal ions. As a chaperon, SA binds to and protects other proteins. As an antioxidant, thanks to a free sulfhydryl group (–SH), albumin is responsible for most antioxidant properties of plasma. These functions qualify SA as a major player in, and a mirror of, overall health status, aging, and neurodegeneration. The low concentration of SA is associated with cognitive deterioration in the elderly and negative prognosis in multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). SA has been shown to be structurally modified in neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). During blood–brain barrier damage albumin enters the brain tissue and could trigger epilepsy and neurodegeneration. SA is able to bind to the precursor agent of the AD, amyloid-beta (Aβ), preventing its toxic effects in the periphery, and is being tested for treating this disease. SA therapy may also be effective in brain rejuvenation. In the current review, we will bring forward the prominent properties and roles of SA in neurodegeneration.

Corresponding author: Mehran Habibi-Rezaei, School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, 14176-14411, Iran; and Nano-Biomedicine Center of Excellence, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, E-mail:


The supports of the University of Tehran, National Institute for Medical Research and Development (NIMAD) are gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Received: 2021-12-06
Accepted: 2022-03-02
Published Online: 2022-04-02
Published in Print: 2022-10-26

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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