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Income Elasticity and the Gender Gap: A Challenging MDG for the MENA Countries

  • Noha M.F. Emara EMAIL logo

Abstract

The gender equality target is still considered one of the most challenging goals for most Middle East and North African (MENA) Countries. Using panel least square with regional dummies (LSDV) for 22 MENA countries over the period 1990–2007, the study concludes that with less than 5 years for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be concluded, a significant acceleration in economic growth is required for the MENA countries to achieve the gender goal if these countries depended solely on economic growth. As a policy implication, the increase in economic growth in the MENA countries needs to be complemented with other factors boosting the achievability of the gender equality such as the government spending on education, infrastructure, and encouragement of international trade. All three factors proved to have a statistical significant and important impact on closing the gender gap.

Appendix

Table 8:

Summary statistics

VariableObservationsMeanStandard deviationMinMax
GDP per capita (constant 2000, US$)3444,301.66,195.536429,128
Female population (% of total)38830.108.331751
Urban population (% of total)38866.3319.712198
Agriculture value added (% of GDP)2559.637.81132
Government expenditure (% of GDP)34418.358.81657
Telephone lines (per 100 people)39614.6412.99155
Trade (% GDP)34771.6238.3727191
Table 9:

Summary statistics by country

CountryVariableGDP per capita (constant 2000, US$)Female population (% of total)Urban population (% of total)Agriculture value added (% of GDP)Government expenditure (% of GDP)Telephone lines (per 100 people)Trade (% GDP)
1- AlgeriaMean1,842.835058.6710.1615.335.656.83
Standard deviation176.3104.181.171.862.168.70
Min1,6595053812350
Max2,13550641117971
2- BahrainMean10,554.8342.3388118.6724.83151.67
Standard deviation2,987.620.52004.722.6424.10
Min4,925428811020116
Max13,476438812427191
3- CyprusMean11,320.1750.568.5n.a.9.6748.554
Standard deviation1,535.630.551.05n.a.8.715.6149.99
Min9,3095067n.a.173988
Max13,4545170n.a.1855108
4- DjiboutiMean868.55081.673.8326.830.83100
Standard deviation136.3303.780.417.760.4116.49
Min7615076312185
Max1,11150864351128
5- EgyptMean1,352.5504316.511.337.6750.83
Standard deviation183.32001.381.034.509.06
Min1,13550431410339
Max1,617504318131463
6- IranMean1,618.334962.514.513.515.1743.67
Standard deviation245.2103.943.211.5210.388.69
Min1,39849571012433
Max2,023496719163256
7- IraqMean154.6727.8338.333.33n.a.1.83n.a.
Standard deviation245.8525.0634.633.66n.a.1.72n.a.
Min71750685n.a.3n.a.
Max55150707n.a.4n.a.
8- IsraelMean18,177.8350.6791.17n.a.27.6742.575.5
Standard deviation1,762.100.520.75n.a.1.034.427.50
Min15,5165090n.a.263564
Max20,5325192n.a.294787
9- JordanMean1,81748.1777423.1710127.33
Standard deviation230.020.4122.191.472.3714.83
Min1,58448732217108
Max2,225497882513147
10- KuwaitMean12,537.1740.1798130.1715.8394.17
Standard deviation7,653.251.600014.555.7410.30
Min16,7003998115786
Max18,860439815721114
11- LebanonMean4,441.55185.175.3316.514.8369.17
Standard deviation592.3301.472.731.871.8317.45
Min3,48451835151353
Max7,170518772017101
12- LibyaMean3,35747.8376.33n.a.16.838.1640.17
Standard deviation3,682.900.410.52n.a.11.013.3722.99
Min6,3714776n.a.17540
Max7,0814877n.a.261364
13- MoroccoMean1,357.550.552.331716.834.1661.17
Standard deviation170.440.552.1621.471.177.08
Min1,19750491415256
Max1,64251552119575
14- OmanMean7,75042.33712.1721.58.3383.33
Standard deviation872.681.2121.174.801.5110.42
Min6,5164167212667
Max8,94144723251096
15- PalestineMean831.334970.83n.a.173.887
Standard deviation553.1701.60n.a.11.352.45
Min2904968n.a.18318
Max1,3744972n.a.30933
16- QatarMean9,663.1732.1794.33n.a.16.6723.564.47
Standard deviation12,221.523.540.82n.a.11.242.5134.63
Min27,8142693n.a.112079
Max29,1283595n.a.322690
17- Saudi ArabiaMean9,277.6744.579.5525.8312.572
Standard deviation327.770.551.871.102.933.6212.57
Min8,9964477322963
Max9,90745826311796
18- SyriaMean1,165.175051.527.1712.839.568
Standard deviation95.3001.875.111.174.596.60
Min98850491911459
Max1,258505432141678
19- TunisiaMean1,963.8349.6762.6712.8315.838.593.67
Standard deviation372.590.522.581.720.413.736.12
Min1,54849591115488
Max2,5265066161613105
20- TurkeyMean3,949.67506413.3311.8323.3343.67
Standard deviation551.5902.903.010.415.357.20
Min3,348506010111431
Max4,918506817122849
21- United Arab EmiratesMean21,349.3332.8378.332.6714.8328.67132.67
Standard deviation2,587.960.980.521.034.023.6117.40
Min16,34332781722108
Max23,851347941731152
22- YemenMean498.6749.1725.3313.8312.331.8361.17
Standard deviation44.890.413.018.706.530.9835.72
Min44449211013134
Max552502923183104
Table 10:

Gender Parity Index (GPI) in primary education. Estimation method: panel least squares with dummies variables (LSDV). Dependent variable: GPI primary

[1][1a][7][7a]
Constant−0.177***−0.330***−0.304***−0.365***
(0.040)(0.047)(0.081)(0.064)
Per capita GDP0.016***0.026***0.0030.0005
(0.006)(0.005)(0.006)(0.006)
Female pop.0.013**0.0002
(0.006)(0.0003)
Urban population0.038**0.002***
(0.019)(0.0004)
Agriculture−0.016**−0.016
(0.006)(0.006)
Govt. exp.0.0100.0002
(0.01)(0.001)
Telephone0.008***0.008***
(0.008)(0.008)
Trade–0.000–0.0002
(0.000)(0.0002)
Regional indicator−0.012–0.021***
(0.003)(0.004)
Countries/observations22/34422/34416/24516/245
Adjusted R20.1170.1040.5230.489
Table 11:

Gender Parity Index in Secondary Education (GPIS). Estimation method: panel least squares with dummies variables (LSDV). Dependent variable: GPI secondary

[1][1a][7][7a]
Constant−0.327***−0.621***−1.384***−0.740***
(0.063)(0.086)(0.397)(0.121)
Per capita GDP0.054***0.055***0.022***0.0193*
(0.009)(0.009)(0.008)(0.011)
Female pop.0.007***−0.0005
(0.010)(0.001)
Urban population0.2660.0047***
(0.093)(0.001)
Agriculture−0.001***−0.001
(0.021)(0.022)
Govt. expenditure0.018−0.0003
(0.017)(0.002)
Telephone0.010***0.007***
(0.002)(0.002)
Trade0.0000.0002
(0.000)(0.0003)
Regional indicator−0.036***−0.051***
(0.007)(0.006)
Countries/observations22/34322/34316/10716/107
Adjusted R20.2120.1160.5340.364
Table 12:

Gender Parity Index in Tertiary Education (GPIT). Estimation method: panel least squares with dummies variables (LSDV). Dependent variable: GPI tertiary

[1][1a][7][7a]
Constant−1.161***−1.451***−1.424***−1.103***
(0.187)(0.086)(0.374)(0.214)
Per capita GDP0.154***0.176***0.109***0.058***
(0.026)(0.080)(0.037)(0.020)
Female pop.0.015−0.003**
(0.015)(–0.001)
Urban population−0.0030.004***
(0.046)(0.001)
Agriculture−0.060−0.021***
(0.057)(0.004)
Govt. exp.0.113**0.0102**
(0.051)(0.004)
Telephone0.019***0.025***
(0.003)(0.003)
Trade0.004***0.003***
(0.001)(0.001)
Regional indicator−0.022−0.035**
(0.018)(0.016)
Countries/observations22/34422/34416/24516/245
Adjusted R20.2450.2050.4180.574

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Published Online: 2014-11-27
Published in Print: 2014-12-1

©2014 by De Gruyter

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