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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 1, 2018

Explaining Gender Differences in Socioeconomic and Political Objectives in the Middle East

Fengyu Wu ORCID logo and Jeffrey B. Nugent

Abstract

The purpose of this article is identify and explain gender differences in eight important socioeconomic attitudes and political priorities among randomized samples of both males and females in 21 countries of the broadly defined Middle East. The attitudes and political priorities examined include the low status of women, lack of democracy, absence of a competitive private sector, income inequality and reliance on the military. In each case decomposition methods are used to divide these differences into those due to differences in the underlying characteristics of males and females and those due to differences in the effect of those characteristics

Appendix

Table 7:

Logit Estimates (Marginal Effects): Economic Growth, Defense Forces, More Say and Beautiful by Gender.

Economic GrowthDefense ForcesMore SayBeautiful
VARIABLESMaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale
Age0.00560***0.00235−0.00245−3.70e-05−0.000500−0.000474−0.00167***−0.00136*
(0.00178)(0.00151)(0.00150)(0.00123)(0.000997)(0.00109)(0.000598)(0.000777)
Age Squared−5.42e-05**−1.37e-052.56e-05−2.23e-062.98e-07−2.01e-061.80e-05**1.33e-05
(2.12e-05)(1.66e-05)(1.60e-05)(1.42e-05)(1.08e-05)(1.26e-05)(7.05e-06)(8.38e-06)
Religion Christian0.03400.03340.00500−0.0361*−0.01460.0263−0.0122−0.0364**
(0.0492)(0.0462)(0.0233)(0.0186)(0.0158)(0.0253)(0.0110)(0.0152)
Religion Orthodox−0.0484−0.0713**0.0488***0.0441**−0.009260.0203*0.00108−0.00135
(0.0359)(0.0312)(0.0114)(0.0221)(0.0127)(0.0114)(0.0138)(0.00820)
Religion Muslim*Shia Majority−0.0735−0.0738***0.0989**0.103***−0.00788−0.00506−0.00198−0.00247
(0.0483)(0.0277)(0.0447)(0.0222)(0.0292)(0.0149)(0.0107)(0.0187)
Religion Muslim*Sunni Majority0.03540.03420.0173−0.00686−0.0301*−0.0193−0.0120−0.00850
(0.0323)(0.0242)(0.0158)(0.0165)(0.0175)(0.0174)(0.00841)(0.00639)
Importance of Religion0.00693−0.01130.004750.00808−0.0104**−0.003400.001470.00518
(0.00739)(0.0118)(0.00495)(0.00648)(0.00436)(0.00900)(0.00234)(0.00357)
Income Quartile 20.0235**0.0129−0.00875−0.00762−0.009190.00414−0.00360−0.00720*
(0.0118)(0.0102)(0.00921)(0.00788)(0.00662)(0.00565)(0.00348)(0.00413)
Income Quartile 30.0241*0.00938−0.0141−0.002140.000144−0.00131−0.00836**−0.00407
(0.0126)(0.0127)(0.0115)(0.00924)(0.00916)(0.00782)(0.00329)(0.00648)
Income Quartile 4−0.000446−0.0123−0.006810.008320.003100.009450.00330−0.00559
(0.0152)(0.0164)(0.0115)(0.0108)(0.00841)(0.00888)(0.00452)(0.00675)
Separated Divorced or Widowed−0.002690.01270.00164−0.00814−0.006120.002360.00636−0.00481
(0.0219)(0.0124)(0.0135)(0.00739)(0.0121)(0.00604)(0.00968)(0.00465)
Single0.003160.00822−0.0236***−0.005370.006980.002100.0102***−0.00332
(0.0133)(0.0120)(0.00826)(0.00908)(0.00687)(0.00704)(0.00356)(0.00419)
Part-time0.00715−0.0229−0.01530.01310.007650.000433−0.001540.00821
(0.0164)(0.0143)(0.0140)(0.0140)(0.00934)(0.00921)(0.00630)(0.00609)
Self-employed−0.0219−0.0422**0.01510.0282**−0.001350.0003000.005970.0105
(0.0182)(0.0176)(0.0122)(0.0141)(0.00781)(0.0127)(0.00418)(0.00723)
Retired−0.00494−0.0709***0.02230.0561***0.001900.0161−0.0191*−0.00442
(0.0197)(0.0271)(0.0138)(0.0193)(0.0102)(0.0164)(0.0107)(0.0123)
Homemaker−0.0139−0.0507***0.03160.0272***−0.0519**0.009920.02050.0105
(0.0475)(0.0139)(0.0356)(0.00850)(0.0221)(0.0105)(0.0139)(0.00691)
Student−0.000458−0.0494**0.01330.0161−0.007970.0194−0.0007820.00932
(0.0140)(0.0202)(0.0165)(0.0120)(0.00899)(0.0123)(0.00695)(0.00705)
Unemployed0.00624−0.0476***−0.003450.0357***−0.004240.0008280.001070.00799
(0.0159)(0.0178)(0.00897)(0.0104)(0.00854)(0.00958)(0.00621)(0.0108)
Other0.00316−0.0570*9.94e-050.0462*−0.00407−0.00540−0.0004230.0133
(0.0463)(0.0302)(0.0273)(0.0261)(0.0216)(0.0171)(0.0100)(0.0135)
Education0.0169**0.00883−0.0108*0.001720.00855*0.0154***−0.0133***−0.0243***
(0.00692)(0.0110)(0.00579)(0.00656)(0.00479)(0.00500)(0.00364)(0.00473)
GDP Change0.0116***0.00272−0.001710.00150−0.00420**−0.00340−0.00365***−0.000198
(0.00335)(0.00557)(0.00219)(0.00357)(0.00179)(0.00218)(0.000416)(0.00120)
Legal Equality−0.196***−0.180***0.0888***0.0879***0.0630***0.0553***0.0472***0.0412***
(0.0222)(0.0390)(0.0150)(0.0211)(0.00979)(0.0135)(0.00227)(0.00723)
Gini−0.0205***−0.0183***0.0125***0.00656*0.00886***0.0155***0.00169***0.000201
(0.00398)(0.00708)(0.00251)(0.00336)(0.00272)(0.00327)(0.000603)(0.00143)
Military Share0.00212−0.0798***−0.0234***0.006650.0294***0.0504***0.001200.0316***
(0.0113)(0.0176)(0.00804)(0.0127)(0.0100)(0.00754)(0.00182)(0.00302)
Arab−0.931***−0.994***0.452***0.533***0.203***0.340***0.221***0.160***
(0.134)(0.265)(0.0923)(0.127)(0.0610)(0.104)(0.0221)(0.0569)
Arab*Wave60.350***0.292***−0.143***−0.143***−0.109***−0.134***−0.0461***−4.98e-05
(0.0664)(0.108)(0.0339)(0.0409)(0.0297)(0.0424)(0.0111)(0.0272)
Soviet0.511***0.307**−0.265***−0.288***−0.07390.0911**−0.146***−0.0849***
(0.0835)(0.132)(0.0478)(0.0776)(0.0480)(0.0447)(0.00843)(0.0269)
Soviet*Wave60.03480.208*0.0110−0.00385−0.0378−0.135***0.0143***−0.0728***
(0.0627)(0.106)(0.0350)(0.0568)(0.0302)(0.0336)(0.00497)(0.0238)
Country-Fixed EffectsYESYESYESYESYESYESYESYES
Wave-Fixed EffectsYESYESYESYESYESYESYESYES
Observations22,82023,33022,82023,33022,82023,33022,82023,330

  1. Robust standard errors clustered at country*wave level in parentheses

    Note: Stars indicate significance levels of the coefficients to which they are attached *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1

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Published Online: 2018-5-1

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