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Explaining Gender Differences in Socioeconomic and Political Objectives in the Middle East

Fengyu Wu ORCID logo and Jeffrey B. Nugent


The purpose of this article is identify and explain gender differences in eight important socioeconomic attitudes and political priorities among randomized samples of both males and females in 21 countries of the broadly defined Middle East. The attitudes and political priorities examined include the low status of women, lack of democracy, absence of a competitive private sector, income inequality and reliance on the military. In each case decomposition methods are used to divide these differences into those due to differences in the underlying characteristics of males and females and those due to differences in the effect of those characteristics


Table 7:

Logit Estimates (Marginal Effects): Economic Growth, Defense Forces, More Say and Beautiful by Gender.

Economic GrowthDefense ForcesMore SayBeautiful
Age Squared−5.42e-05**−1.37e-052.56e-05−2.23e-062.98e-07−2.01e-061.80e-05**1.33e-05
Religion Christian0.03400.03340.00500−0.0361*−0.01460.0263−0.0122−0.0364**
Religion Orthodox−0.0484−0.0713**0.0488***0.0441**−0.009260.0203*0.00108−0.00135
Religion Muslim*Shia Majority−0.0735−0.0738***0.0989**0.103***−0.00788−0.00506−0.00198−0.00247
Religion Muslim*Sunni Majority0.03540.03420.0173−0.00686−0.0301*−0.0193−0.0120−0.00850
Importance of Religion0.00693−0.01130.004750.00808−0.0104**−0.003400.001470.00518
Income Quartile 20.0235**0.0129−0.00875−0.00762−0.009190.00414−0.00360−0.00720*
Income Quartile 30.0241*0.00938−0.0141−0.002140.000144−0.00131−0.00836**−0.00407
Income Quartile 4−0.000446−0.0123−0.006810.008320.003100.009450.00330−0.00559
Separated Divorced or Widowed−0.002690.01270.00164−0.00814−0.006120.002360.00636−0.00481
GDP Change0.0116***0.00272−0.001710.00150−0.00420**−0.00340−0.00365***−0.000198
Legal Equality−0.196***−0.180***0.0888***0.0879***0.0630***0.0553***0.0472***0.0412***
Military Share0.00212−0.0798***−0.0234***0.006650.0294***0.0504***0.001200.0316***

  1. Robust standard errors clustered at country*wave level in parentheses

    Note: Stars indicate significance levels of the coefficients to which they are attached *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1


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Published Online: 2018-5-1

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