This paper analyses whether the consumption based capital asset pricing model is consistent with asset return data from Denmark, Italy, Norway and Austria. The performance of the CCAPM is evaluated by applying the nonparametric methodology of Hansen and Jagannathan (1991) and adopting five alternative specifications of utility. In addition to standard power utility the recursive preferences model proposed by Epstein and Zin (1989) is adopted. Both internal and external habit formation (persistence) using the models proposed by Constantinides (1990), Abel (1990) and Campbell and Cochrane (1999) are also considered. The findings are evaluated using the test of Burnside (1994) and the pricing error measure of Hansen and Jagannathan (1997). It is found that the majority of models produce stochastic discount factors consistent with the data (at mostly low degrees of risk aversion). As far as the pricing errors of the models are concerned the model incorporating recursive utility can be considered best.
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