Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 16, 2020

Toward a Marxist Concept of Community

Andreas Beck Holm
From the journal SATS

Abstract

In this paper, it is argued that even though the concept of community does not play a significant role in Marxist theory, Marxism needs a notion of community, and the paper sets out to theorize how to make sense of this concept in a Marxist theoretical setting. The paper claims that Althusser’s philosophy, especially his elaboration of the concept of practice, may assist us in this task, and it sets out to explore what can be gained by redefining community in terms of practice. In Althusser’s theory, practice and ideology are very closely linked. While recognizing the importance of Althusser’s theory of ideology, the paper then subsequently explores an alternative configuration of the concepts community and ideology. Finally, it is claimed that this analysis may help us to better understand ideologies such as racism and nationalism.


Corresponding author: Andreas Beck Holm, Department of Culture and Society, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, E-mail:

The author would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for constructive criticism and insightful comments.


References

Adler, P. S. 2015. “Community and Innovation: From Tönnies to Marx.” Organization Studies 36 (4): 445–71, https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840614561566. Search in Google Scholar

Agamben, G. 1993. The Coming Community. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Search in Google Scholar

Althusser, L. 1973. Réponse à John Lewis. Paris: François Maspero. Search in Google Scholar

Althusser, L. 1974. Eléments d’autocritique. Paris: Hachette. Search in Google Scholar

Althusser, L. 1976. “Idéologie et appareils idéologiques d’état (Notes pour une recherche).” In Positions, 67–125. Paris: Éditions Sociales. Search in Google Scholar

Althusser, L. 1994. Écrits philosophiques et politiques, Vol. 1. Paris: Éditions STOCK/IMEC. Search in Google Scholar

Althusser, L. 1995: Sur la reproduction. Paris: PUF. Search in Google Scholar

Althusser, L. 1965. Pour Marx. Paris: La Découverte, 1996. Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, B. 2003. Imagined Communities. London: Verso. Search in Google Scholar

Bensussan, G., and G. Labica. 1999. Dictionnaire critique du marxisme. Paris: PUF. Search in Google Scholar

Berger, B. M. 1988. “Disenchanting the Concept of Community.” Society 35 (2): 324–8, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02838157. Search in Google Scholar

Bond, N. 2013. “‘Ferdinand Tönnies’ Appraisal of Karl Marx: Debts and Distance.” Journal of Classical Sociology 13 (1): 136–62, https://doi.org/10.1177/1468795x12474060. Search in Google Scholar

Callari, A., and D. F. Ruccio. 2010. “Rethinking Socialism: Community, Democracy, and Social Agency.” Rethinking Marxism 22 (3): 403–19, https://doi.org/10.1080/08935696.2010.490395. Search in Google Scholar

Delanty, G. 2005. Community. London and New York: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Derrida, J. 1994. Politiques de l‘amitié. Paris: Éditions Galilée. Search in Google Scholar

Fischer, K. H. 1994. “Der Begriff der Gemeinschaft im Denken von Karl Marx.” History of European Ideas 18 (3): 401–6, https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-6599(94)90504-5. Search in Google Scholar

Frederickson, G. M. 2002. Racism: A Short History. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Hardt, M. 2010. “The Common in Communism.” Rethinking Marxism 22 (3): 346–56, https://doi.org/10.1080/08935696.2010.490365. Search in Google Scholar

Laclau, E., and C. Mouffe. 2001. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. London: Verso. Search in Google Scholar

Lampert, M. 2015. “Resisting Ideology: On Butler’s Critique of Althusser.” Diacritics 43 (2): 124–47, https://doi.org/10.1353/dia.2015.0008. Search in Google Scholar

MacIntyre, A. 2001. Whose Justice? Which Rationality?. London: Duckworth. Search in Google Scholar

Maffesoli, M. 2019. Le temps des tribus. Le déclin de l’individualisme dans les sociétés postmodernes. Paris: Éditions de la table ronde. Search in Google Scholar

Mahowald, M. B. 1973. “Marx’s ‘Gemeinschaft’: Another Interpretation.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33 (4): 472–88, https://doi.org/10.2307/2106538. Search in Google Scholar

Marx, K. 1932. “Die Deutsche Ideologie.” In Marx-Engels Werke, Vol. 3, 9–429. Berlin: Dietz Verlag, 1978. Search in Google Scholar

Megill, K. A. 1970. “The Community in Marx’s Philosophy.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (3): 382–93, https://doi.org/10.2307/2105603. Search in Google Scholar

Melucci, A. 1996. Challenging Codes. Collective Action in the Information Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Montag, W. 2012. “Between Interpellation and Immunization: Althusser, Balibar, Esposito.” Postmodern Culture 22 (3): 7, https://doi.org/10.1353/pmc.2012.0016. Search in Google Scholar

Nancy, J.-L. 1996. Être singulier pluriel. Paris: Editions Galilee. Search in Google Scholar

Nancy, J.-L. 2004. La communauté désoeuvrée. Paris: Christian Bourgois éditeur. Search in Google Scholar

Nimni, E. 1991. Marxism and Nationalism. Theoretical Origins of a Political Crisis. London: Pluto Press. Search in Google Scholar

Sandel, M. J. 2005. Public Philosophy: Essays on Morality in Politics. Harvard: Harvard University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Sayers, S. 2007. “Individual and Society in Marx and Hegel: Beyond the Communitarian Critique of Liberalism.” Science & Society 71 (1): 84–102, https://doi.org/10.1521/siso.2007.71.1.84. Search in Google Scholar

Tönnies, F. 1991. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundbegriffe der reinen Soziologie. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Search in Google Scholar

Young, I. 1986. “The Ideal of Community and the Politics of Difference.” Social Theory and Practice 12 (1): 1–26, https://doi.org/10.5840/soctheorpract198612113. Search in Google Scholar

Žižek, S. 2008. The Sublime Object of Ideology. London: Verso. Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2020-09-16
Published in Print: 2020-11-26

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston