The current study constitutes the first empirical investigation of the complete repertoire of tense-aspect forms of the subjunctive mood in Spanish. In this study, I identify the frequency of use of the full range of tense-aspect forms of the subjunctive mood (e.g. present, pluperfect) that native speakers and five proficiency levels of second-language learners use in mood-choice contexts and seek to determine the linguistic contexts (i.e. functions) in which these forms occur. The results show that native speakers use the present, imperfect, and pluperfect subjunctive forms more frequently than other subjunctive forms and that they use these three forms in a range of linguistic contexts. The analysis also demonstrates that learners use these three forms in largely the same contexts as the native speakers and that they restructure the strength of their form-meaning associations as they become more proficient in the target language.
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