Background and aims
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) impacts significantly on the lives of women. Negative coping responses such as pain catastrophizing are thought to be significant in predicting both pain severity and outcome. The combined effect of the individual’s response to pain and its severity on their quality of life (QoL) has not been well studied in women with CPP. Aims were to determine the prevalence of pain catastrophizing in women with CPP and to examine the associations between pain catastrophizing and levels of dysmenorrhea, non-cyclical pelvic pain, dyspareunia, dysuria, dyschezia and QoL.
A cross-sectional study including women aged 18–50 years, referred to a tertiary gynecology outpatients department at an Australian women’s hospital in 2015. Participants completed questionnaires including: pain catastrophizing scale (PCS); pelvic pain levels in the prior 3 months; and the World Health Organisation Quality of life – Bref Questionnaire (WHOQoL-Bref). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA (StataCorp, USA Version13).
Participants (n = 115) had a median age of 29.0 [interquartile range (IQR): 23.0–38.0] years. The Pain catastrophizing score revealed that 60/113 [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.6, 71.2] of participants had a clinically relevant total score ≥30. There were statistically significant positive correlations between pain catastrophizing scores and pelvic pain levels in all five pain categories studied, dysmenorrhea (ρ = 0.37, p = 0.0001), non-cyclical pelvic pain (ρ = 0.46, p<0.0001), dyspareunia (ρ = 0.32, p = 0.0008), dysuria (ρ = 0.32, p = 0.0005) and dyschezia (ρ = 0.38, p = 0.0012). Participants who reported maximal pain levels (5/5) had significantly higher median pain catastrophizing scores when compared to those who reported no pain (0/5) in all categories. Overall QoL was considered as “good” in 71/113 (95% CI: 60.1, 81.0) participants and “poor” in 42/113 (95% CI: 32.0, 53.0) participants. Comparison to Australian female norms revealed significantly lower QoL scores in the physical domain, across all ages, and in psychological domain for those aged <30 and 30–40 years. There was a significant association between increased catastrophizing scores and reduced odds of good QoL. An increase in PCS by one point is associated with a 6.3% decrease in the odds of good QoL [odds ratio (OR) per one-point increase: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.98), p = 0.008].
Pain catastrophizing is prevalent at clinically relevant levels in women with CPP across all domains. It is associated with higher pain levels and decreased QoL.
There is potential for further studies to investigate the predictive nature of pain catastrophizing and management targeting catastrophizing to improve outcomes in women with CPP.
We wish to express our gratitude and thanks to Mrs Jennifer Porter, and the Mercy Hospital for Women’s Gynaecology Units; Plenty Gynaecology and Endosurgery A.
Research funding: Financial support by The Norman Beischer Medical Research Foundation.
Conflict of interest: The authors report no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed written consent was received from every participant.
Ethical approval: Ethics was approved by Mercy Health, HREC.
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Research was presented at the Australian Pain Society 36th Annual Scientific Meeting in March 2016.
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