Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 18, 2021

De jure but not de facto: pluricentric Portuguese in post-colonial Cabo Verde

  • Nicola Bermingham EMAIL logo , Renée DePalma EMAIL logo and Luzia Oca EMAIL logo
From the journal Sociolinguistica

Abstract

In Cabo Verde, Portuguese is the official language, while Kriolu is the first language of virtually all the population. The schooling context clearly reflects this diglossic situation: while the vast majority of children speak Kriolu at home, Portuguese continues to be the exclusive language of instruction. Thus, Portuguese in Cabo Verde represents a post-colonial language that has maintained its de jure status but has not entered de facto domains of use. The research described in this article is based on discourse analysis of legislative and policy documents and extended semi-structured interviews with politicians, educators and language activists. Our results in this former colonial context invite us to reconsider traditional understandings of pluricentricity, as they suggest that Cabo Verdean Portuguese is not (yet) associated with local identity and has not (yet) been accepted by its speakers as a legitimate, standardised variety.


Article Note

This work is supported by national funds, through the FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology under the project UIDB/04011/2020.


9

9 References

Almeida Garrido de Resende, Taciana (2016): Língua crioula, intelectuais e cabo-verdianidade [‘The Creole language, intellectuals, and Cabo Verdian-ness’]. In: Tempos Históricos 20, 372–395.Search in Google Scholar

Auer, Peter (2013): Enregistering pluricentric German. In: Soares da Silva, Agusto (ed.): Pluricentricity: Language Variation and Sociocognitive Dimensions. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 19–48.10.1515/9783110303643.19Search in Google Scholar

Azevedo, Milton M. (2005): Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511755057Search in Google Scholar

Bacelar do Nascimento, Maria Fernanda/Estrela, Antónia/Mendes, Amália/Pereira, Luísa (2008): On the use of comparable corpora of African varieties of Portuguese for linguistic description and teaching/learning applications. In: Zweigenbaum, Pierre (ed.): Proceedings of the Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora, VI Language Resources and Evaluation Conference – LREC2008, Marrakesh, Morroco, 31 May, 2008. [https://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/37434/1/bacelar_comparable_corpora_lrec2008_final.pdf]; last access on 26 May 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Baxter, Alan N. (1992): Portuguese as a pluricentric language. In: Clyne, Michael (ed.): Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton, 11–23.Search in Google Scholar

Beckert, Ronny (2020): Kabuverdianu no sistema educativo em Cabo Verde e o seu status em relação ao português [‘Caboverdean in the education system of Cabo Verde and its status with relation to Portuguese’]. In: Linguagem & Ensino 23,4, 1224–1247.10.15210/rle.v23i4.19025Search in Google Scholar

Bermingham, Nicola/DePalma, Renée/Oca, Luzia (in press): The ‘access paradox’ in bilingual education in Cabo Verde. In: Modern Languages Open.10.3828/mlo.v0i0.376Search in Google Scholar

Braz Dias, Juliana (2002): Língua e poder: transcrevendo a questão nacional [‘Language and power: Transcribing the national question’]. In: Mana 8,1, 7–27.10.1590/S0104-93132002000100001Search in Google Scholar

Constituição da República de Cabo Verde [‘Constitution of the Republic of Cabo Verde’] (1980): Boletim Oficial da República de Cabo Verde 41, Suplemento, 13 October 1980. Assembleia Nacional Popular. [http://portais.parlamento.cv/Constituicao/arquivos/CRCVConstitui%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20da%20Rep%C3%BAblica%20de%20Cabo%20Verde.pdf]; last access on 26 May 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Constituição da República de Cabo Verde [‘Constitution of the Republic of Cabo Verde’] (1992): Governo de Cabo Verde: Constituição [https://www.governo.cv/documentos/constituicao-da-republica/]; last access on 26 May 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Clyne, Michael (1984): Language and Society in the German Speaking Countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Clyne, Michael (1992): Pluricentric languages: an introduction. In: Clyne, Michael (ed.): Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton, 1–9.10.1515/9783110888140.1Search in Google Scholar

Decreto-Lei 67/98 (1998): In: Boletim Oficial da República de Cabo Verde 48, 5º Suplemento, 31 December 1998, 18–23. Conselho de Ministros. [http://alupec.kauberdi.org/decreto-lei-67-98.html]; last access on 27 May 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Decreto-Lei 8/2009 (2009): In: Boletim Oficial da República de Cabo Verde, I Serie, 11, 16 March 2009, 74–76. Conselho de Ministros. [http://alupec.kauberdi.org/decreto-lei-8-2009.html]; last access on 26 May 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Decreto presidencial 30/2018 (2018): In: Boletim Oficial da República de Cabo Verde, I Serie, 80, 7 December 2018, 1934–1953. Presidência da República. [https://minedu.gov.cv/media/orientacao/2020/10/06/Decreto-legislativo_n%C2%BA_13_2018_LBSE.pdf]; last access on 26 May 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Duarte, Dulce Almada (1998): Bilinguismo Ou Diglossia? As Relações de Força Entre o Crioulo e o Português Na Sociedade Cabo-Verdiana [‘Bilingualism or diglossia? Power relations between Creole and Portuguese in Cabo Verdian society’]. Praia: Spleen.Search in Google Scholar

Fehn, Anne-Marie (2019): African linguistics in official Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking Africa. In: Wolff, H. Ekkehard (ed.): A History of African Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 189–204.10.1017/9781108283977.010Search in Google Scholar

Ferguson, Charles A. (1959): Diglossia. In: Word, 15, 2, 325–340.10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702Search in Google Scholar

Gorski Severo, Christine (2016): Lusofonia, colonialismo e globalização [‘Lusophony, colonialism, and globalisation’]. In: Fórum Linguístico 13, 3, 1321–1333.10.5007/1984-8412.2016v13n3p1321Search in Google Scholar

Jacobs, Bart (2012): Origins of a Creole: Papiamentu and Its African Ties. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.10.1515/9781614511076Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, Gitte (2013): Introduction: pluricentricity, language-internal variation and cognitive linguistics. In: Soares de Silva, Agusto (ed.): Pluricentricity: Language Variation and Sociocognitive Dimensions. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 1–16.10.1515/9783110303643.1Search in Google Scholar

Lei de Bases do Sistema Educativo [‘Fundamental law of the educational system’] (1990): Lei n° 103/III/90 de 29 de Dezembro. Assembleia Nacional Popular. [http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/6e91cb4eb0fdcf264c81b6a663d5f60944b7442d.pdf]; last access on 26 May 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Muhr, Rudolf (2012): Linguistic dominance and non-dominance in pluricentric languages: a typology. In: Muhr, Rudolf (ed.): Non-Dominant Varieties of Pluricentric Languages. Getting the Picture. In Memory of Michael Clyne. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 23–48.10.3726/978-3-653-01621-5Search in Google Scholar

Muhr, Rudolf (2018): Misconceptions about pluricentric languages and pluricentric theory – an overview of 40 years. In: Muhr, Rudolf/Meisnitzer, Benjamin (eds.): Pluricentric Languages and Non-Dominant Varieties Worldwide: New Pluricentric Languages − Old Problems. New York: Peter Lang, 17–56.10.3726/b14648Search in Google Scholar

Nunes Martins, Claudia Susana (2018): Reseña de Muhr, Rudolf; et al. 2016. Pluricentric Languages and Non-Dominant Varieties Worldwide. Part II. In: Estudios de Lingüística del Español 39, 493–508.Search in Google Scholar

Müller de Oliveira, Gilvan (2013): Um Atlântico ampliado: o português nas políticas linguísticas do século XXI [‘An explanded Atlantic: Portuguese in the linguistic policies of the 21st century’]. In: da Moita Lopes, Luis Paulo (ed.): O Português No Século XXI-Cenário Geopolítico e Sociolinguístico. São Paulo: Parábola Editorial, 53–73.Search in Google Scholar

Parliamentary Forum (2013): Oficialização da Língua Cabo-verdiana: Por um bilinguismo social efectivo [‘Officialisation of the Cabo Verdean language: for an effective social bilingualism’]. Sala de Sessões da Assembleia Nacional, 17 May 2013. [http://www.parlamento.cv/userfiles/Presidente/Presidente_Discursos/F%C3%B3rum%20Parlamentar%20sobre%20a%20oficializa%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20da%20lingua%20caboverdiana.pdf]; last access on 14 March 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Resolução 48/2005 (2005): In: Boletim Oficial da República de Cabo Verde, I Serie, 46, 14 November 2005, 1242–1243. [http://alupec.kauberdi.org/pdf/resolucao-48-2005.pdf]; last access on 13 June 2021.Search in Google Scholar

Schneider, Edgar W. (2013): Global diffusion, regional attraction, local roots? Sociocognitive perspectives on the pluricentricity of English. In: Soares da Silva, Agusto (ed.): Pluricentricity: Language Variation and Sociocognitive Dimensions. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 191–226.10.1515/9783110303643.191Search in Google Scholar

Soares da Silva, Agusto (2013): The pluricentricity of Portuguese: a sociolectometrical approach to divergence between European and Brazilian Portuguese. In: Soares da Silva, Agusto (ed.): Pluricentricity: Language Variation and Sociocognitive Dimensions. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 143–188.10.1515/9783110303643.143Search in Google Scholar

Vale de Almeida, Miguel (2007): From miscegenation to Creole identity: Portuguese colonialism, Brazil, Cape Verde. In: Stewart, Charles (ed.): Creolization: History, Ethnography, Theory. New York: Routledge, 108–132.Search in Google Scholar

Veiga, Manuel (1995): O crioulo de Cabo Verde. Introdução à Gramática [‘The Creole of Cabo Verde: introduction to the grammar’]. Mindelo: Instituto Cabo-verdiano do Livro e do Disco e Instituto Nacional da Cultura.Search in Google Scholar

Vera-Cruz de Melo Lopes, Amalia Maria (2011): As Línguas de Cabo Verde: Uma Radiografia Sociolinguística. Lisbon: University of Lisbon (PhD dissertation).Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-11-18
Published in Print: 2021-11-12

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 29.11.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/soci-2021-0006/html
Scroll to top button