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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Oldenbourg October 12, 2017

Typology of Household Strategies of Action in Four Countries of Southeastern Europe in a Period of Economic Crisis

Predrag Cvetičanin and Miran Lavrič
From the journal Südosteuropa

Abstract

In this paper, we explore whether the myriad production and consumption household practices in four societies of Southeastern Europe (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia) can empirically be reduced to a relatively small number of coherent and socially meaningful combinations, which we have labelled household strategies of action. Approaching the same data from two different angles, namely, using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TCA), we have identified five general household strategies and eleven more detailed and specific sub-strategies. More importantly, by projecting these strategies and sub-strategies onto the social space, we have shown that these household practices are linked to the class position of households. On a more general level, it is indicated that the study of household strategies can be viewed as a way of rendering relatively static structural approaches, in this case the Bourdieusian approach to social space, more dynamic.

Appendix

Table A1

Household production and consumption practices in four SEE countries.[21]

B-HB-H%CROCRO%SLOSLO%SRBSRB%
Main sources of household income
Income from full-time jobs41443.8%51151.3%42447.3%42542.8
Income from part-time jobs747.8%32832.9%--626.2%
Pensions35737.7%858.5%33036.8%30430.6%
Agriculture------474.7%
Other sources of income10110.7%727.2%798.8%595.9%
Mixed sources of income----637.0%969.7%
Total946100%996100%896100%993100%
Number of household incomes
No permanent income14614.7%757.6%394.4%11311.5%
One salary23223.4%20721.0%17619.8%21321.7%
One pension28528.8%21722.0%15717.7%19219.6%
Two salaries13413.5%21021.3%23025.9%18218.5%
Two pensions414.1%969.7%13915.6%848.6%
Salary & pension899.0%747.5%556.2%889.0%
3+ incomes636.4%10910.9%9310.5%11011.2%
Total990100%1000100%889100%982100%
Does the household perform any additional economic activities (in formal, informal or social economy)
Add_economic_activities--90290.0%90990.9%79087.4%85285.2%
Add_economic_activities++10010.0%919.1%11412.6%14814.8%
Total1002100%1000100%904100%1000100%
Household production
Food production & processing21921.9%18318.3%10011.1%26726.7%
Food processing828.2%24324.3%637.0%19319.3%
Mixed production13213.2%646.4%27430.3%868.6%
No production56956.8%51051.0%46751.7%45445.4%
Total1002100%1000100.0%904100%1000100%
Groups according to the percentage of food households produced themselves
Food_production 0%49549.4%48048.0%37641.6%53153.1%
Food_production < 25%21421.4%27027.0%27930.9%18518.5%
Food production 26-50%19619.6%15415.4%17219.0%15115.1%
Food production 51-100%979.7%969.6%778.5%13313.3%
Total1002100%1000100%904100%1000100%
Groups according to the percentage of food brought from a village (from parents or relatives)
Food_vilage 0%81481.2%69069.0%60566.9%83683.6%
Food_village < 25%868.6%20820.8%22024.3%949.4%
Food_village > 25%10210.2%10210.2%798.7%707.0%
Total1002100%1000100%904100%1000100%
Total number of products/activities reduced
Reduction 040940.8%28228.2%33436.9%23323.3%
Reduction 1-3----19521.6%18018.0%
Reduction 1-521621.6%27827.8%----
Reduction 4-7------24924.9%
Reduction 4-926429.2%
Reduction 6-1017617.6%30430.4%----
Reduction 8-10------14714.7%
Reduction 10-13----11112.3%--
Reduction 11-1320120.1%13613.6%--19119.1%
Total1002100%1000100%904100%1000100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 invest in business?
Invest_business++747.6%727.2%485.3%838.3%
Invest_business--90292.4%92892.8%85294.7%91491.7%
Total976100%1000100%900100%997100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 buy real estate?
Bought_real_estate++434.4%515.1%687.5%545.4%
Bought_real_estate--93495.6%94994.9%83492.5%94294.6%
Total977100%1000100%902100%996100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 buy a car?
Bought_car++13613.9%16816.8%31434.8%14414.4%
Bought_car--83986.1%83283.2%58865.2%85385.6%
Total975100%1000100%902100%997100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 save money?
Saved_money++9910.2%14414.5%18320.4%828.3%
Saved_money--87689.8%85285.5%71379.6%90691.7%
Total975100.0996100%896100%988100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 decrease debt?
Decrease_debt++9610.215616.014916.712112.6
Decrease_debt--84689.881884.074183.384287.4
Total942100.0974100.0890100.0963100.0
Has the household in the period 2010-2015 been forced to spend some savings?
Spent_savings++11211.6%25625.8%25628.5%25926.2%
Spent_savings--85788.4%73574.2%64371.5%72873.8%
Total969100%991100%899100%987100%
Has the household in the period 2010-2015 been forced to borrow money?
Borrow_money++16016.5%26226.3%15216.9%34234.4%
Borrow_money--80983.5%73473.7%74983.1%65265.6%
Total969100%996100%901100%994100%
Has the household in the period 2010-2015 been forced to sell gold, silverware, jewellery?
Sold_gold++414.3%12412.4%434.8%505.0%
Sold_gold--92195.7%87587.6%85895.2%94495.0%
Total962100%999100%901100%994100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 reduce meat in their diet?
Reduced_Meat_yes31932.5%27627.7%20022.4%32733.1%
Reduced_Meat_no66267.5%72072.3%69477.6%66266.9%
Total981100%996100%894100%989100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 reduce hygiene products and cosmetics?
Reduced_Hyg_Yes25026.0%22422.4%20122.5%28428.7%
Reduced_Hyg_No71174.0%77477.6%69277.5%70571.3%
Total961100%998100%893100%989100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 reduce buying clothing and footwear?
Reduced_Cloth_Yes40541.6%52552.8%39143.6%51852.3%
Reduced_Cloth_No56858.4%46947.2%50656.4%47247.7%
Total973100%994100%897100%990100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 reduce summer vacations?
Reduced_Vacation_Yes42445.7%45447.3%33437.5%54055.1%
Reduced_Vacation_No50454.3%50552.7%55762.5%44044.9%
Total928100%959100%891100%980100%
Did the household in the period 2010-2015 reduce cultural goods and programmes?
Reduced_Culture_Yes36840.7%41944.0%23426.5%44245.7%
Reduced_Culture_No53659.3%53456.0%64873.5%52554.3%
Total904100%953100%882100%967100%
Number of household duties performed by members of the household’s social network
Network_HHwork088988.7%79179.1%72480.1%79979.9%
Network_HHwork1676.7%11711.7%10511.6%11711.7%
Network_HHwork2464.6%474.7%424.6%464.6%
Network_HHwork3+--454.5%333.7%383.8%
Total1002100%1000100%904100%1000100%
Number of household duties perfomed by paid persons
Paid_HHwork013113.1%14714.7%13214.6%14114.1%
Paid_HHwork122122.1%11411.4%12814.2%11011.0%
Paid_HHwork224124.1%16616.6%16618.4%17117.1%
Paid_HHwork328528.4%27027.0%23125.6%22422.4%
Paid_HHwork4838.3%18218.2%14716.3%16616.6%
Paid_HHwork5414.1%797.9%10011.1%969.6%
Paid_HHwork6+1002100%424.2%--929.2%
Total1000100%904100%1000100%

Table A2

Relative frequencies for 11 clusters representing household sub-strategies in four countries.[22]

B-HCROSLOSRB
Full-Time Jobs17,2%15,6%18,8%6,8%
Full-Time Jobs & Investment8,1%12,2%3,4%7,3%
Full-Time Jobs & Small Business5,8%3,6%3,1%6,8%
Moonlighting4,8%4,5%7,3%9,2%
Multiple Part-Time Sources6,6%6,4%9,5%7,2%
Cuts & Permanent Incomes9,1%11,7%5,8%20,1%
Cuts & Mixed Incomes4,5%6,6%10,6%10,9%
Social Transfers1,8%1,6%3,3%2,3%
Permanent Incomes & Self-Provisioning16,9%15,2%19,7%5,9%
Small Farm Mix8,6%6,5%8,1%11,0%
Retired Persons Strategies16,6%16,1%10,5%12,5%
Total100%100%100%100%

Table A3

Active variables used for the construction of social space in four SEE countries.[23]

B-HB-H%CROCRO%SLOSLO%SRBSRB%
Average monthly household income per household member (in EUR)–economic capital
I:< 100 EUR10615.4%465.3%--22528.4%
I: 101-200 EUR28140.9%17620.1%--32340.8%
I: < 200 EUR----506.0%--
I: 201-300 EUR17124.9%25228.8%----
I: 201-400 EUR----17521.1%--
I: 201-350 EUR------18323.1%
I: 301-400 EUR7110.3%------
I: 301-500 EUR--19622.4%----
I: 350+ EUR------617.7%
I: 400+ EUR588.4%------
I: 401-600 EUR----19423.4%--
I: 501-700 EUR--14316.3%----
I: 601-800 EUR----22527.2%--
I: 700+ EUR637.2%----
I: 801-1000 EUR----10813.0%--
I: 1000+ EUR----769.2%--
Total678100%876100%828100%792100%
Value of flat/house that the household owns (in EUR)–economic capital
Flat_023623.6%14314.3%18920.9%13313.3%
Flat < 20,000 EUR--929.2%--26226.2%
Flat < 25,000 EUR19219.2%------
Flat_20,001-40,000 EUR------28728.7%
Flat_25,001-35,000 EUR20920.9%------
Flat_20,001-50,000 EUR--21821.8%----
Flat_35,001-50,000 EUR22622.6%------
Flat_40,001-60,000 EUR------14314.3%
Flat < 60,000 EUR----17619.5%--
Flat_50,001-70,000 EUR757.5%------
Flat_50,001-80,000 EUR--21921.9%----
Flat_70,000+ EUR646.4%------
Flat_60,001-100,000 EUR----21623.9%12312.3%
Flat_80,001-100,000 EUR--12112.1%----
Flat_100,000+ EUR------525.2%
Flat_100,001-150,000 EUR--13313.3%16918.7%--
Flat_150,000+ EUR--727.2%----
Flat_150,001-200,000 EUR----768.4%--
Flat_200,000+ EUR----788.6%--
Total1002100%1000100%904100%100100%
Value of automobiles that the household owns (in EUR)–economic capital
Car_047457.7%31935.6%22026.3%56456.4%
Car<1,000 EUR10713.0%14215.8%16719.9%16916.9%
Car_1,001-2,000 EUR819.9%------
Car_1,001-3,000 EUR--17319.3%12314.7%21121.1%
Car_2,001-4,000 EUR10813.1%------
Car > 3,000 EUR------565.6%
Car_3,001-5,000 EUR--11412.7%9211.0%--
Car > 4,000 EUR526.3%------
Car_5,001-10,000 EUR--778.6%14717.5%--
Car > 10,000 EUR--717.9%8910.6%--
Total822100%998100%904100%1000100%
Arable land that the household possesses (in ha)–economic capital
Land_083583.3%79780.2%74786.7%75976.0%
Land_1 ha959.5%778.7%536.1%--
Land < 2 ha------13313.3%
Land_2-5 ha--586.6%----
Land > 2 ha727.2%--627.2%10710.7%
Land > 5 ha--394.4%----
Total1002100%896100%862100%999100%
Membership in political parties—social capital
Party ++929.2%797.9%505.5%666.6%
Party --91090.8%92192.1%85394.5%93493.4%
Total1002100%1000100%904100%1000100%
The size of the respondent’s social networks—social capital
Network_0-234734.6%------
Network_0-5--25925.9%19021.0%29632.0%
Network_3-517717.7%------
Network 6-10------20221.8%
Network 6-2033333.2%43143.1%41846.3%--
Network 11-20------25227.2%
Network 21-30------12313.3%
Network 21-4010110.1%20120.1%19221.3%--
Network 30+------535.7%
Network 40+444.4%10910.9%10311.4%--
Total1002100%1000100%904100%926100%
Number of connections in public institutions—social capital
Connect_081381.1%60960.9%62669.3%61561.5%
Connect_1949.4%--12213.5%--
Connect_2505.0%------
Connect_ 1-3--30030.0%--29629.6%
Connect_ 2-3----9710.7%--
Connect_ 3-7454.5%------
Connect_ 4-7--919.1%586.4%898.9%
Total1002100%1000100%904100%1000100%
Do the respondents hold managerial positions—political capital
Manager ++--676.7%434.8%505.0%
Manager ----93393.3%86095.2%95095.0%
Total976100%1000100%900100%1000100%
Respondent’s highest educational level—cultural capital
Resp_Edu_elementary29929.8%20020.0%13214.6%21821.8%
Resp_Edu_high-school55555.4%59659.6%49354.6%54454.4%
Resp_Edu_college+14814.8%20420.4%27830.8%23823.8%
Total1002100%1000100%903100%1000100%
Respondent’s spouse’s highest educational level—cultural capital
Spouse_Edu_elementary18029.5%10717.5%7714.5%13422.7%
Spouse_Edu_high-school35558.2%37561.5%29555.7%33156.0%
Spouse_Edu_college+7512.3%12821.0%15829.8%12621.3%
Total610100%610100%530100%591100%

Published Online: 2017-10-12
Published in Print: 2017-9-26

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston