Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (A) September 28, 2019

Differential place marking and differential object marking

Martin Haspelmath

Abstract

This paper gives an overview of differential place marking phenomena and formulates a number of universals that seem to be well supported. Differential place marking is a situation in which the coding of locative, allative or ablative roles depends on subclasses of nouns, in particular place names (toponyms), inanimate common nouns and human nouns. When languages show asymmetric coding differences depending on such subclasses, they show shorter (and often zero) coding of place roles with toponyms, and longer (often adpositional rather than affixal) coding of place roles with human nouns. Like differential object marking, differential place marking can be explained by frequency asymmetries, expectations derived from frequencies, and the general preference for efficient coding. I also argue that differential place marking patterns provide an argument against the need to appeal to ambiguity avoidance to explain differential object marking.

Acknowledgments

The support of the European Research Council (ERC Advanced Grant 670985, Grammatical Universals) is gratefully acknowledged. I also thank the following colleagues for useful comments on an earlier version of the paper: Thomas Stolz, Silvia Luraghi, Seppo Kittilä, Ora Matushansky, Yoram Meroz, Eitan Grossman, Iker Salaberri, Marcus Barão Camarão, and others who commented on Academia.edu.

Abbreviations

1, 2, 3

first, second, third person

acc

accusative

ade

adessive

cop

copula

def

definite

dem

demonstrative

dim

diminutive

gen

genitive

impfv

imperfective

loc

locative

m

masculine

nmlz

nominalizer

nom

nominative

obl

oblique

prog

progressive

prs

present

refl

reflexive

sg

singular

tns

tense

References

Aissen, Judith. 2003. Differential object marking: Iconicity vs. economy. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21(3). 435–483. Search in Google Scholar

Aristar, Anthony Rodrigues. 1997. Marking and hierarchy types and the grammaticalization of case-markers. Studies in Language 21(2). 313–368. Search in Google Scholar

Bentley, Mayrene. 1998. The marking of grammatical relations in Swahili. Studies in African Linguistics 27(2). 177–197. Search in Google Scholar

Bhatia, Tej K. 1993. Punjabi: A cognitive-descriptive grammar. New York: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Chechuro, Ilya. 2019. Nominal morphology of Mehweb. In Michael Daniel, Nina Dobrushina & Dmitry Ganenkov (eds.), Topics in the grammar of Mehweb, 39–73. Berlin: Language Science Press. Search in Google Scholar

Comrie, Bernard. 1977. Subjects and direct objects in Uralic languages: A functional explanation of case marking systems. Études Finno-Ougriennes 12. 5–17. Search in Google Scholar

Comrie, Bernard. 1986. Markedness, grammar, people, and the world. In Fred R. Eckman, Edith A. Moravcsik & Jessica R. Wirth (eds.), Markedness, 85–106. New York: Plenum. Search in Google Scholar

Creissels, Denis. 2009. Spatial cases. In Andrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of case, 609–625. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Creissels, Denis & Céline Mounole. 2011. Animacy and spatial cases: Typological tendencies, and the case of Basque. In Seppo Kittilä, Katja Västi & Jussi Ylikoski (eds.), Case, animacy and semantic roles, 155–182. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Croft, William. 1988. Agreement vs. case marking in direct objects. In Michael Barlow & Charles Ferguson (eds.), Agreement in natural language: Approaches, theories, descriptions, 159–180. Stanford: CSLI. Search in Google Scholar

Daniel, Michael. 2019. this issue. Bagvalal place names as adverbs. Case study in part-of-speech typology. Search in Google Scholar

Daniel, Michael & Dmitrij Ganenkov. 2009. Case marking in Daghestanian. In Andrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook on case, 668–685. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Grimm, Scott. 2018. Grammatical number and the scale of individuation. Language 94(3). 527–574. Search in Google Scholar

Haspelmath, Martin. 2008. Frequency vs. iconicity in explaining grammatical asymmetries. Cognitive Linguistics 19(1). 1–33. Search in Google Scholar

Haspelmath, Martin. 2016. Universals of causative and anticausative verb formation and the spontaneity scale. Lingua Posnaniensis 58(2). 33–63. Search in Google Scholar

Haspelmath, Martin. 2019a. Explaining grammatical coding asymmetries: Form-frequency correspondences and predictability. to appear. Search in Google Scholar

Haspelmath, Martin. 2019b. Role-reference associations and the explanation of argument coding splits. to appear. Search in Google Scholar

Kittilä, Seppo. 2008. Animacy effects on differential Goal marking. Linguistic Typology 12. 245–268. Search in Google Scholar

Kittilä, Seppo. 2014. The (non-)prototypicality of direction. In Silvia Luraghi & Heiko Narrog (eds.), Perspectives on semantic roles, 151–179. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Kittilä, Seppo & Jussi Ylikoski. 2011. Remarks on the coding of goal, recipient and vicinal goal in European Uralic. In Seppo Kittilä, Katja Västi & Jussi Ylikoski (eds.), Case, animacy and semantic roles, 29–64. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Klavan, Jane. 2014. A multifactorial corpus analysis of grammatical synonymy. The Estonian adessive and adposition peal ‘on’. In Dylan Glynn & Justyna A. Robinson (eds.), Corpus methods for semantics: Quantitative studies in polysemy and synonymy, 253–278. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Lazard, Gilbert. 2001. Le marquage différentiel de l’objet. In Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher & Wolfgang Raible (eds.), Language typology and language universals: An international handbook, vol. 2, 873–885. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Luraghi, Silvia. 2011. The coding of spatial relations with human landmarks: From Latin to Romance. In Seppo Kittilä, Katja Västi & Jussi Ylikoski (eds.), Case, animacy and semantic roles, 209–234. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Luraghi, Silvia. 2017. Differential goal marking vs. differential source marking in Ancient Greek. In Silvia Luraghi, Tatiana Nikitina & Chiara Zanchi (eds.), Space in diachrony, 119–145. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Malchukov, Andrej & Peter de Swart. 2009. Differential case marking and actancy variations. In Andrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of case, 339–355. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Matushansky, Ora. 2017. The curious case of locatives. Cambridge, MA. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs–01679106. Search in Google Scholar

Michaelis, Susanne Maria & APiCS Consortium. 2013. Motion-to and motion-from. In Susanne Maria Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), Atlas of pidgin and creole language structures, 322–325. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://apics-online.info/parameters/61.chapter.html. Search in Google Scholar

Næss, Åshild. 2004. What markedness marks: The markedness problem with direct objects. Lingua 114(9/10). 1186–1212. Search in Google Scholar

Reh, Mechthild. 1985. Die Krongo-Sprache (Nìinò-mó-dì): Beschreibung, Texte, Wörterverzeichnis. Berlin: D. Reimer. Search in Google Scholar

Ross, Malcolm. 2004. Demonstratives, local nouns and directionals in Oceanic languages: A diachronic perspective. In Gunter Senft (ed.), Deixis and demonstratives in Oceanic languages, 175–204. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. Search in Google Scholar

Schlossberg, Jonathan. 2017. “Local nouns” and the differential marking of place (Paper presented at the 12th Conference of the Association of Linguistic Typology, Canberra). Search in Google Scholar

Schlossberg, Jonathan. 2018. Atolls, islands, and endless Suburbia: Spatial reference in Marshallese. Newcastle: The University of Newcastle, Australia PhD dissertation. Search in Google Scholar

Seidel, Frank. 2008. A grammar of Yeyi: A Bantu language of Southern Africa. Köln: Köppe. Search in Google Scholar

Shimelman, Aviva. 2017. A grammar of Yauyos Quechua. Berlin: Language Science Press. http://langsci-press.org/catalog/book/83, Search in Google Scholar

Stairs, Glenn & Emily F. Stairs. 1983. Huave de San Mateo del Mar (Archivo de Lenguas Indígenas de México). Mexico: El Colegio de México. https://cell.colmex.mx/index.php/proyectos/archivo-de-lenguas-indigenas. Search in Google Scholar

Stolz, Thomas, Nataliya Levkovych & Aina Urdze. 2017. When zero is just enough … In support of a Special Toponymic Grammar in Maltese. Folia Linguistica 51(2). 453–482. Search in Google Scholar

Stolz, Thomas, Sander Lestrade & Christel Stolz. 2014. The crosslinguistics of zero-marking of spatial relations. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. Search in Google Scholar

Zaika, Natalia M. 2016. The directive/locative alternation in Lithuanian and elsewhere. In Axel Holvoet & Nicole Nau (eds.), Argument realization in Baltic, 333–360. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Zribi-Hertz, Anne & Loïc Jean-Louis. 2018. General locative marking in Martinican Creole (Matinitjè): A case study in grammatical economy. Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali 4. 151–176. Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2019-09-28
Published in Print: 2019-09-25

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston