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The classification of names

A crosslinguistic study of sex-specific forms, classifiers, and gender marking on personal names

Corinna Handschuh EMAIL logo

Abstract

Personal names can be specified as male or female in almost all languages of the world. Languages differ, however, whether the sex of the referent is lexical knowledge or overtly coded in the form of the name. Symmetrical systems – with overt marking on both male and female names – can be distinguished from asymmetrical ones, of which one subtype, overt coding of female names, is by far the most frequent. In addition, the morpho-syntactic system of encoding the sex of the referent can be either limited to personal names or use morphological material also employed on other types of nominals. This paper investigates the morpho-syntactic means used for the classification of personal names in the languages of the world as well as the integration of personal names into classificatory systems used for common nouns, namely gender and classifiers.

Acknowledgment

This work was presented at the workshop “The Grammar of Names” at the annual meeting of the Societas Linguisticea Europaea in September 2017 in Zürich, Switzerland, from which the present volume has originated. I thank the organizers and participants of the workshop for their valuable feedback. The manuscript has greatly profited form the comments on earlier versions by Antje Dammel, Martin Haspelmath and two (somewhat) anonymous reviewers. Particular thanks are due to Anna Pamies, who has studied innumerable grammars on the search for information on names. Needless to say that all remaining errors in the paper are my own responsibility.

Abbreviations

1/2/3

1st/2nd/3rd person

female (name)

male (name)

abl

ablative case

acc

accusative case

art

article

clf

classifier

dat

dative case

decl

declarative clause

dem

demonstrative

dep

dependent (verb)

f

feminine gender

fin

final particle

gen

genitive case

hum

human

inh.poss

inherent possession modifier

ipfv

imperfective aspect

m

masculine gender

mid

middle voice

n

neuter gender

nc

noun class

neg

negation

nmlz

nominalizer

nom

nominative case

obj

object

org.

originally

part. tran.

partially transparent

phon. patt.

phonological pattern

pro

pronoun

prs

present tense

pst

past tense

rel

relative clause

sbj

subject

seq

sequential

sg

singular

spcf

specificity

ssbj

same subject

SSN

sex-specific (form of) name

voc

vocative case

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Appendix

LanguageSourceDomainBoundednessTransparencySymmetry
AbazaČirikba (2007)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
AnywaReh (1996)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
ArawakDe Goeje (1928)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
AkanAgyekum (2006)onymicphon. patt.opaquesymmetric
AzerbaijaniGaribova (2007)compoundboundtransparentsymmetric
Betta KurumbaCoelho (2003)onymicboundpart. tran.symmetric
ChechenPleskalová (2007)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
ChuvashJohanson (2007)onymicboundpart. tran.asymmetric
DakotaRiggs (1893)compoundboundtransparentasymmetric
DomTida (2006)onymicfreetransparentsymmetric
DomariMatras (2012)inflectionboundopaquesymmetric
DunaSan Roque (2008)onymicfreetransparentsymmetric
GaroHvenekilde et al. (2000)onymicphon. patt.opaquesymmetric
Greek (Modern)Steffen (2007)inflectionboundopaquesymmetric
GermanNübling and Dammel (2007)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
GumuzAhland (2012)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
HdiFrajzyngier (2002)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
HidatsaMatthews (1873)compoundboundtransparentasymmetric
IatmulJendraschek (2012)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
IbibioEkpo (1978)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
IcelandicKvaran (2007)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
KalmykSchorkowitz (2007)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
KaqchikelGarcia Matzar et al. (1993)onymicfreeopaquesymmetric
KhamWatters (2004)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
KulinaDienst (2014)inflectionboundopaqueasymmetric
LahuMatisoff (1973)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
LangoNoonan (1992)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
LatinRoby (2010 [1862])inflectionboundopaquesymmetric
LuwoStorch (2014)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
MamaindêEberhard (2009)derivationboundopaqueasymmetric
ManambuAikhenvald (2010)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
MangarayiMerlan (1989)inflectionboundopaquesymmetric
MaveaGuérin (2011)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
Mongsen AoCoupe (2007)derivationboundpart. tran.symmetric
NahavaqDimock (2009)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
NandiCreider and Creider (1989)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
NeververBarbour (2012)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
NuauluEllen (1983)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
Sa’aIvens (1918)onymicfreetransparentsymmetric
SenecaChafe (2014)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
SerbianLoma (2007)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
SesothoMohome (1972)onymicboundpart. tran.symmetric
Sivisa TitanBowern (2011)onymicfreeopaquesymmetric
SloveneBergermayer (2007)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
TeluguKrishnamurti and Gwynn (1985)derivationboundopaquesymmetric
Toba BatakVan der Tuuk (1971)onymicboundpart. tran.asymmetric
ToqabaqitaLichtenberk (2008)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
Tundra NenetsSalminen (2007)compoundboundtransparentasymmetric
UnamiWeslager (1971)compoundboundtransparentasymmetric
UnuaPearce (2015)onymicboundopaquesymmetric
WiruStrathern (1970)onymicboundopaqueasymmetric
Published Online: 2019-11-07
Published in Print: 2019-11-26

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