Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (A) March 29, 2021

Contact phenomena in the verbal complex: the Walser connection in the Alpine area

Marco Angster and Livio Gaeta

Abstract

In the context of the Alps – a broad region characterized by common geographical and cultural features – the isolation caused by the geographical setting makes it possible for conservative strategies to survive from the Middle Ages through present times. This isolation, however, does not exclude that conservative patterns evolve into innovative strategies. To illustrate this, we surveyed causative and progressive constructions in the historical German minority varieties on the southern side of the Alps. Greschòneytitsch, a particularly dynamic variety, shows the remarkable development of a causative particle, tònz, and the grammaticalization of an adverb, eister, into a marker of progressive aspect.


Corresponding author: Marco Angster, Department of Linguistics, University of Zadar, Croatia, E-mail:

References

Angster, Marco. 2004–05. La perifrasi tue + infinito nel titsch di Gressoney. Turin: University of Turin BA thesis.Search in Google Scholar

Angster, Marco. 2011. Il verbo fare a Gressoney. Caratteri e forme di forme verbali analitiche in un dialetto walser. In Elisabetta Fazzini (ed.), Il tedesco superiore. Tradizione scritta e varietà parlate, 65–86. Alessandria: dell’Orso.Search in Google Scholar

Angster, Marco. 2012. Isolamento e contatto. Stratigrafia del lessico dei walser meridionali dai dati del PALWaM. Bollettino dell’Atlante Linguistico Italiano (III Serie) 36. 155–200.Search in Google Scholar

Angster, Marco. 2014. Lingue di minoranza e di maggioranza. 200 anni di lingue straniere a Gressoney (AO). In Valentina Porcellana & Federica Diémoz (eds.), Minoranze in mutamento: Etnicità, lingue e processi etnografici nelle valli alpine italiane, 105–121. Alessandria: dell’Orso.Search in Google Scholar

Angster, Marco, Marco Bellante, Raffaele Cioffi & Livio Gaeta. 2017. I progetti DiWaC e ArchiWals. In Livio Gaeta (ed.), Le isole linguistiche tedescofone in Italia, 83–94 Special Issue of Bollettino dell’Atlante Linguistico Italiano 41.Search in Google Scholar

Bader, Marcus. 2014. Das Verb lassen im Deutschen: Zum Zusammenspiel von Auxiliarinversion und Ersatzinfinitiv. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 33(1). 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1515/zfs-2014-0001.Search in Google Scholar

Bausewein, Karin. 1991. AcI-Konstruktionen und Valenz. In Eberhard Klein, Françoise Pouradier Duteil & Karl Heinz Wagner (eds.), Betriebslinguistik und Linguistikbetrieb. Akten des 24. Linguistischen Kolloquiums, Universität Bremen, 4.–6. September 1989, 245–251. Tübingen: Niemeyer.10.1515/9783111353166.245Search in Google Scholar

Campbell, Lyle. 1985. Areal linguistics and its implications for historical linguistics. In Jacek Fisiak (ed.), Papers from the VIth international conference on historical linguistics, Poznań. 22–26 August 1983, 25–56. Amsterdam & Poznań: John Benjamins & Adam Mickiewicz University Press.10.1075/cilt.34.05camSearch in Google Scholar

Campbell, Lyle. 2006. Areal linguistics: A closer scrutiny. In Yaron Matras, April McMahon & Nigel Vincent (eds.), Linguistic areas. Convergence in historical and typological perspective, 1–31. New York: Palgrave McMillan.10.1057/9780230287617_1Search in Google Scholar

Cerruti, Marco. 2007. Sulla caratterizzazione aspettuale e la variabilità sociale d’uso di alcune perifrasi verbali diatopicamente marcate. Archivio glottologico italiano 92(2). 203–247.Search in Google Scholar

Dal Negro, Silvia. 2004. The decay of a language. The case of a German dialect in the Italian Alps. Bern & New York: Peter Lang.Search in Google Scholar

Dal Negro, Silvia & Simone Ciccolone. 2018. Il parlato bilingue: italiano e tedesco a contatto in un corpus sudtirolese. In Felisa Bermejo Calleja & Peggy Katelhön (eds.), Lingua parlata. Un confronto fra l’italiano e alcune lingue europee, 385–407. Berlin: Peter Lang.Search in Google Scholar

Dixon, R. M. W. 2000. A typology of causatives: Form, syntax and meaning. In R. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), Changing valency: Case studies in transitivity, 30–83. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511627750.003Search in Google Scholar

DWB = Grimm, Jakob & Wilhelm Grimm. 1854–1971. Deutsches Wörterbuch. Leipzig: Hirzel.Search in Google Scholar

Ebert, Karin H. 2000. Progressive markers in Germanic languages. In Östen Dahl (ed.), Tense and aspect in the languages of Europe, 605–653. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter.10.1515/9783110197099.4.605Search in Google Scholar

Eller-Wildfeuer, Nicole, Paul Rössler & Alfred Wildfeuer (eds.). 2018. Alpindeutsch. Einfluss und Verwendung des Deutschen im alpinen Raum. Regensburg: vulpes.Search in Google Scholar

Gaeta, Livio. 2010. The invisible hand of grammaticalization: West-Germanic substitutive infinitive and the prefix ge-. In Wolfgang Dressler, Dieter Kastovsky, Hans-Christian Luschützky & Franz Rainer (eds.), Variation and change in morphology. Selected papers from the 13th international morphology meeting, Vienna february 2008, 89–105. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.10.1075/cilt.310.05gaeSearch in Google Scholar

Gaeta, Livio. 2013. Multiple sources for the German scandal construction. Studies in Language 37(3). 566–598. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.37.3.05gae.Search in Google Scholar

Gaeta, Livio, Marco Bellante, Raffaele Cioffi & Marco Angster. 2019. Conservazione e innovazione nelle varietà walser: i progetti DiWaC e ArchiWals. In Roberto Rosselli Del Turco (ed.), Dall’indoeuropeo al germanico: problemi di linguistica storica, 141–193. Alessandria: dell’Orso.Search in Google Scholar

Geyer, Ingeborg, Marco Angster & Marcella Benedetti (eds.). 2014 Il tesoro linguistico delle isole germaniche in Italia/Wortschatz aus den deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien. Luserna: Comitato delle isole linguistiche germanofone in Italia.Search in Google Scholar

Giacalone Ramat, Anna. 1979. Lingua, dialetto e comportamento linguistico. La situazione di Gressoney. Aosta: Musumeci.Search in Google Scholar

Giordani, Giovanni. 1891. La colonia tedesca di Alagna-Valsesia e il suo dialetto. Torino: Candeletti.Search in Google Scholar

Glaser, Elvira (ed.). Syntaktischer Atlas der deutschen Schweiz (SADS). Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto, in press.Search in Google Scholar

Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva. 2003. On contact-induced grammaticalization. Studies in Language 27(3). 529–572. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.27.3.04hei.Search in Google Scholar

Klein, Gabriella. 1986. La politica linguistica del fascismo. Bologna: Il mulino.Search in Google Scholar

Kulikov, Leonid I. 2001. Causatives. In Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher & Wolfgang Raible (eds.), Language typology and language universals. An international handbook, Vol. 2, 886–898. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Marazzini, Claudio. 2002. La lingua italiana. Profilo storico. Bologna: Il Mulino.Search in Google Scholar

Muysken, Pieter. 2008. Introduction: Conceptual and methodological issues in areal linguistics. In Pieter Muysken (ed.), From linguistic areas to areal linguistics, 1–23. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.10.1075/slcs.90.01muySearch in Google Scholar

Nichols, Johanna. 1992. Linguistic diversity in space and time. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226580593.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Paul, Hermann. 2007. Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik. Tübingen: Niemeyer.10.1515/9783110942347Search in Google Scholar

Reichmann, Oskar & Klaus-Peter Wegera. 1993. Frühneuhochdeutsche Grammatik. Tübingen: Niemeyer.10.1515/9783110920130Search in Google Scholar

Rizzi, Enrico. 2002. Le fonti. In Luigi Zanzi & Enrico Rizzi (eds.), I Walser nella storia delle Alpi: un modello di civilizzazione e i suoi problemi metodologici, 2nd edn., 441–516. Milano: Jaca Book.Search in Google Scholar

Rizzi, Enrico. 2004. Storia dei Walser dell’ovest: Vallese, Piemonte, Cantone Ticino, Valle d’Aosta, Savoia, Oberland bernese. Anzola d’Ossola: Fondazione Enrico Monti.Search in Google Scholar

Russ, Charles V. J. 1990. High Alemannic. In Charles V. J. Russ (ed.), The dialects of modern German, 364–393. London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

SDS = Rudolf Hotzenköcherle, Robert Schläpfer, Rudolf Trüb & Paul Zinsl. 1956–2001. Sprachatlas der deutschen Schweiz, 8 vols. Bern: Francke.Search in Google Scholar

SI = Schweizerisches Idiotikon. 1881–2019. Wörterbuch der schweizerdeutschen Sprache. Frauenfeld: Huber.Search in Google Scholar

Squinabol, Barbara. 2008. Dinamiche linguistiche nella comunità walser di Gressoney. Pavia, Italy: University of Pavia MA thesis.Search in Google Scholar

Vogel, Ralf. 2009. Skandal im Verbalkomplex: Betrachtungen zur scheinbar inkorrekten Morphologie in infiniten Verbkomplexen des Deutschen. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 28. 307–346. https://doi.org/10.1515/zfsw.2009.028.Search in Google Scholar

Weiss, Emil. 1956. TUN: MACHEN. Bezeichnungen für die kausative und die periphrastische Funktion im Deutschen bis um 1400. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Search in Google Scholar

Wildgen, Wolfgang. 2005. Migration von Sprachen und Kulturen – Überlegungen zur kulturellen Dynamik von symbolischen Formen (besonders im Alpenraum). In Ermenegildo Bidese, James R. Dow & Thomas Stolz (eds.), Das Zimbrische zwischen Germanisch und Romanisch, 24–42. Bochum: Brockmeyer.Search in Google Scholar

WKZ = Centro Studi e Cultura Walser/Walser Kulturzentrum. 1998. Greschòneytitsch. Titsch/Italiano. Quart: Musumeci.Search in Google Scholar

Zinsli, Paul. 2002. Walser Volkstum. In der Schweiz, in Vorarlberg, Liechtenstein und Italien. Erbe, Dasein, Wesen. Chur: Bündner Monatsblatt Verlag Desertina.Search in Google Scholar

Zürrer, Peter. 2009. Sprachkontakt in Walser Dialekten. Gressoney und Issime im Aostatal (Italien). Stuttgart: Steiner.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-01-10
Accepted: 2020-07-15
Published Online: 2021-03-29
Published in Print: 2021-04-27

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston