Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (A) September 11, 2021

Two-phase verbs: a crosslinguistic look at an actional class

  • Jurica Polančec EMAIL logo

Abstract

This paper documents the properties and realizations of the actional (aspectual, Aktionsart) class of two-phase verbs, with a particular focus on languages with inflectional (obligatory) grammatical aspect. The paper adopts a descriptive (non-formal) and typological perspective. Two-phase verbs are defined, for the purposes of the paper, as verbs whose inflectional (obligatory) aspect grams (e.g., imperfective, progressive, etc.) can express both the durative phase of the situation leading up to the culmination, as well as the durative phase resulting from that culmination. The realizations of the class in perfective-imperfective languages are compared to realizations in two languages with idiosyncratic aspect systems, Belhare and Nyakyusa.


Corresponding author: Jurica Polančec, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, E-mail:

References

Bar-el, Leora. 2015. Documenting and classifying aspectual classes across languages. In M. Ryan Bochnak & Lisa Matthewson (eds.), Methodologies in semantic fieldwork, 75–109. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190212339.003.0004Search in Google Scholar

Bickel, Balthasar. 1996. Aspect, mood, and time in Belhare: Studies in the semantics-pragmatics interface of a Himalayan language. Zürich: Universität Zürich PhD dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Bickel, Balthasar. 1997. Aspectual scope and the difference between logical and semantic representation. Lingua 102. 115–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0024-3841(97)00004-1.Search in Google Scholar

Bickel, Balthasar. 2003. Belhare. In Graham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 546–570. London: Curzon Press.Search in Google Scholar

Bickel, Balthasar & Johanna Nichols. 2007. Inflectional morphology. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, Vol. 3, 169–240. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511618437.003Search in Google Scholar

Botne, Robert. 1981. On the nature of tense and aspect: Studies in the semantics of temporal reference in English and Kinyarwanda. Evanston: Northwestern University PhD dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Botne, Robert. 1983. On the notion “inchoative verb” in Kinyarwanda. In Francis Jouannet (ed.), Le kinyarwanda, langue bantu de Rwanda, 149–180. Paris: SELAF.Search in Google Scholar

Botne, Robert. 2003. To die across languages: Towards a typology of achievement verbs. Linguistic Typology 7(2). 233–278. https://doi.org/10.1515/lity.2003.016.Search in Google Scholar

Botne, Robert. 2008. A grammatical sketch of Chindali (Malawian variety). Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.Search in Google Scholar

Botne, Robert & Tiffany L. Kershner. 2008. Tense and cognitive space: On the organization of tense/aspect systems in Bantu languages and beyond. Cognitive Linguistics 19(2). 145–218. https://doi.org/10.1515/COG.2008.008.Search in Google Scholar

Breu, Walter. 1985. Handlungsgrenzen als Grundlage der Verbklassifikation. In Werner Lehfeldt (ed.), Slavistische Linguistik 1984, 9–34. Sagner: München.Search in Google Scholar

Breu, Walter. 1994. Interactions between lexical, temporal and aspectual meanings. Studies in Language 18(1). 23–44. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.18.1.03bre.Search in Google Scholar

Breu, Walter. 1996. Komponentenmodell der Interaktion von Lexik und Aspekt. In Wolfgang Girke (ed.), Slavistische Linguistik 1995, 37–74. München: Sagner.Search in Google Scholar

Breu, Walter. 1998. Komplexe aktionale Verbklassen, insbesondere Inchoativa. In Tilman Berger (ed.), Slavistische Linguistik 1997, 55–80. München: Sagner.Search in Google Scholar

Breu, Walter. 2007. Der Verbalaspekt im Spannungsfeld zwischen Grammatik und Lexik. Sprachwissenschaft 32(2). 123–166.Search in Google Scholar

Breu, Walter. 2019. In The degree of temporal dynamics as the overall basis for aspect and actionality and their interaction (Paper presented at the 13th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology, Pavia, Italy, September 4–6, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

Brinton, Laurel J. 1988. The development of English aspectual systems: Aspectualizers and post-verbal particles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Bybee, Joan L. 1985. Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.10.1075/tsl.9Search in Google Scholar

Bybee, Joan L. & Östen Dahl. 1989. The creation of tense and aspect systems in the languages of the world. Studies in Language 13(1). 51–103. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.13.1.03byb.Search in Google Scholar

Bybee, Joan L., Revere D. Perkins & William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar: Tense, aspect, and modality in the languages of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Comrie, Bernard. 1976. Aspect: An introduction to the study of verbal aspect and related problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Crane, Thera Marie & Axel Fleisch. 2019. Towards a fieldwork methodology for eliciting distinctions in lexical aspect in Bantu. In Aunio Lotta & Axel Fleisch (eds.), Linguistic diversity research among speakers of isiNdebele and Sindebele in South Africa, 129–179. Helsinki: Studia Orientalia.Search in Google Scholar

Crane, Thera Marie & Bastian Persohn. 2019. What’s in a Bantu verb? Actionality in Bantu languages. Linguistic Typology 23(2). 303–345. https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2019-0017.Search in Google Scholar

Dahl, Östen. 1985. Tense and aspect systems. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Daniel, Michael. 2010. Linguistic typology and the study of language. In Jae Jung Song (ed.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic typology, 43–68. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199281251.013.0004Search in Google Scholar

Dowty, David. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar: The semantics of verbs and times in generative semantics and in Montague’s PTQ. Dordrecht: Reidel.10.1007/978-94-009-9473-7Search in Google Scholar

Ebert, Karen H. 1995. Ambiguous prefect-progressive forms across languages. In Pier Marco Bertinetto, Valentina Bianchi Östen Dahl & Mario Squartini (eds.), Temporal reference, aspect and actionality. Vol. 2: Typological perspectives, 185–204. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.Search in Google Scholar

Ebert, Karen H. 1997. Athpare grammar. München: Lincom Europa.Search in Google Scholar

Ebert, Karen H. 2000. Progressive markers in Germanic languages. In Östen Dahl (ed.), Tense and aspect in the languages of Europe, 605–654. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter.10.1515/9783110197099.4.605Search in Google Scholar

Filip, Hana. 1999. Aspect, eventuality types, and nominal reference. New York: Garland Pub.Search in Google Scholar

Filip, Hana. 2011. Aspectual class and Aktionsart. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger & Portner Paul (eds.), Semantics: An international handbook of natural language meaning (HSK 33.2), 1186–1217. Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.Search in Google Scholar

Filip, Hana. 2012. Lexical aspect. In Robert I. Binnick (ed.), The Oxford handbook of tense and aspect, 721–751. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195381979.013.0025Search in Google Scholar

Goddard, Cliff. 2011. Semantic analysis: A practical introduction, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Haspelmath, Martin. 2010. Comparative concepts and descriptive categories in cross-linguistic studies. Language 86(3). 663–687. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2010.0021.Search in Google Scholar

Huddleston Rodney & Geoffrey K. Pullum (eds.). 2002. The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/9781316423530Search in Google Scholar

Johanson, Lars. 2000. Viewpoint operators in European languages. In Östen Dahl (ed.), Tense and aspect in the languages of Europe, 27–187. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197099.1.27.Search in Google Scholar

Klein, Wolfgang. 1994. Time in language. London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Lazard, Gilbert. 2005. What are we typologists doing?. In Zygmunt Frajzyngier, Adam Hodges & David S. Rood (eds.), Linguistic diversity and language theories, 1–23. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.10.1075/slcs.72.02lazSearch in Google Scholar

Leluda-Voß, Christina. 1997. Die Perfekterfassung und das neugrieschische Perfekt. Frankfurt a.M. & New York: Peter Lang.Search in Google Scholar

Levin, Beth & Malka Rappaport Hovav. 2005. Argument realization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511610479Search in Google Scholar

Lindstedt, Jouko. 2001. Tense and aspect. In Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher & Wolfgang Raible (eds.), Language typology and language universals: An international handbook, Vol. 1, 768–783. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter (HSK 20.1).Search in Google Scholar

Lyons, John. 1977. Semantics (I, II). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mair, Christian. 2012. Progressive and continuous aspect. In Robert I. Binnick (ed.), The Oxford handbook of tense and aspect, 803–827. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195381979.013.0028Search in Google Scholar

Mattissen, Johanna. 2001. Tense and aspect in Laz. In Karen H. Ebert & Fernando Zúñiga (eds.), Aktionsart and aspectotemporality in non-European languages. Zürich: Universität Zürich, Seminar für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft.Search in Google Scholar

Mattissen, Johanna. 2019. In A cross-linguistic view on lexically inherent actional classes (Paper presented at the 13th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology, Pavia, Italy, September 4–6, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

Moens, Marc & Mark Steedman. 1988. Temporal ontology and temporal reference. Computational Linguistics 14(2). 15–28.Search in Google Scholar

Nedjalkov, Vladimir P. & Sergej Je. Jaxontov. 1988. The typology of resultative constructions. In Vladimir P. Nedjalkov (ed.), Typology of resultative constructions, 3–62. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.12.06ned.Search in Google Scholar

Nurse, Derek. 2008. Tense and aspect in Bantu. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Nurse, Derek, Sarah Rose & John Hewson. 2016. Tense and aspect in Niger-Congo. Tervuren, Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa. https://www.africamuseum.be/sites/default/files/media/docs/research/publications/rmca/online/documents-social-sciences-humanities/tense-aspect-niger-congo.pdf (accessed 6 March 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Ožegov, Sergej I. & Natalija J. Švedova. 1993. Tolkovyj slovar’ russkogo jazyka: 72500 slov i 7500 frazeologičeskih vyraženij. Moskva: Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk.Search in Google Scholar

Persohn, Bastian. 2017. The verb in Nyakyusa: A focus on tense, aspect and modality. Berlin: Language Science Press https://zenodo.org/record/926408 (accessed 6 March 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Persohn, Bastian. 2018. Aspectuality in Bantu: On the limits of Vendler’s categories. Linguistic Discovery 16(2). 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.479.Search in Google Scholar

Plungjan, Vladimir A. 1998. Perfektiv, kompletiv, punktiv [Perfective, completive, punctive]. In Marina J. Čertkova (ed.), Tipologija vida: problemy, poiski, rešenija [Typology of aspect: problems, quests, solutions], 370–381. Moskva: Škola “Jazyki slavjanskoj kul’tury.Search in Google Scholar

Plungjan, Vladimir A. 2011. Vvedenie v grammatičeskuju semantiku [Introduction to grammatical semantics]. Moskva: RGGU.Search in Google Scholar

Rothstein, Susan D. 2004. Structuring events: A study in the semantics of lexical aspect. Oxford: Blackwell.10.1002/9780470759127Search in Google Scholar

Sasse, Hans-Jürgen. 1991. Aspect and Aktionsart: A reconciliation. Belgian Journal of Linguistics 6. 31–45. https://doi.org/10.1075/bjl.6.03sas.Search in Google Scholar

Sasse, Hans-Jürgen. 2002. Recent activity in the theory of aspect: Accomplishments, achievements, or just non-progressive state?. Linguistic Typology 6(2). 199–271. https://doi.org/10.1515/lity.2002.007.Search in Google Scholar

Smith, Carlota S. 1997. The parameter of aspect, 2nd edn. Dordrecht: Kluwer.10.1007/978-94-011-5606-6Search in Google Scholar

Stassen, Leon. 1997. Intransitive predication. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Search in Google Scholar

Stassen, Leon. 2006. Nonverbal predication. In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of language & linguistics, 693–696. Oxford: Elsevier.10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00208-XSearch in Google Scholar

Stassen, Leon. 2010. The problem of cross-linguistic identification. In Jae Jung Song (ed.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic typology, 90–99. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199281251.013.0006Search in Google Scholar

Stassen, Leon. 2013. Predicative adjectives. In Matthew S. Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds.), The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. https://wals.info/chapter/118 (accessed 18 June 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Tatevosov, Sergej (Sergei) G. 2002. The parameter of actionality. Linguistic Typology 6(3). 317–401. https://doi.org/10.1515/lity.2003.003.Search in Google Scholar

Tatevosov, Sergej (Sergei) G. 2015. Akcionalʹnostʹ v leksike i grammatike: glagol i struktura sobytija [Actionality in lexicon and grammar. Verb and event structure]. Moskva: Jazyki Slavjanskoj Kulʹtury.Search in Google Scholar

Tatevosov, Sergej (Sergei) G. 2016. Glagolʹnye klassy i tipologija akcionalʹnosti [Verb classes and typology of actionality]. Moskva: Jazyki Slavjanskoj Kulʹtury.Search in Google Scholar

Vendler, Zeno. 1957. Verbs and times. The Philosophical Review 66(2). 143–160. Reprinted in Inderjeet Mani, James Pustejovsky & Robert Gaizauskas (eds.). 2005. The language of time: A reader, 21–32. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/2182371.Search in Google Scholar

Walková, Milada. 2013. The aspectual function of particles in phrasal verbs. Groningen: University of Groningen PhD dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Zúñiga, Fernando. 2001. A selection theory of Mapudungun aspect. In Karen H. Ebert & Fernando Zúñiga (eds.), Aktionsart and aspectotemporality in non-European languages, 73–96. Zürich: Universität Zürich, Seminar für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-09-11
Published in Print: 2021-09-27

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 4.2.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/stuf-2021-1042/html
Scroll Up Arrow