Accessible Published by De Gruyter August 30, 2017

Folk medicines of Bafra (Samsun-Turkey)

Bafra’nın (Samsun-Türkiye) halk ilaçları
Elif Karcı, İlhan Gürbüz, Galip Akaydın and Tuğba Günbatan

Abstract

Objective

In this study, determination and documentation of folk medicines that are being used by indigenous people in Bafra was aimed.

Materials and methods

Scientific trips were organised to the region and folk medicines were identified by interviewing individuals which have knowledge of folk medicine. One hundred and fifty-five plant samples were collected during the study. Obtained data were statistically analysed by using four quantitative indices; “informant consensus factor”, “use value”, “relative frequency of citation” and “cultural importance index”.

Results

Fifty-three genera and 62 taxa belonging 33 families were recorded to be used in the treatment of different diseases. The usage of five species (Anthemis coelopoda var. coelopoda, Tanacetum corymbosum, Quercus frainetto, Salvia forskahlei and Lavatera punctate) as folk medicine was previously undocumented in Turkey. In addition, new usages of 13 folk medicines [Allium porrum, Brassica oleracea, Corylus maxima, Foeniculum vulgare, Helianthus annuus, Melissa officinalis subsp. altissima, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major subsp. intermedia, Prunus avium, Punica granatum, Sedum pallidum, Vitis sylvestris and Zea mays] in Turkey were also detected. Folk medicines are mostly used for muscle-skeletal (FIC=0.6935), respiratory (FIC=0.6909) and dermatological system disorders (FIC=0.5555). In addition, Cydonia oblonga (UV value=0.23), Urtica dioica (UV value=0.19), Sambucus ebulus (UV value=0.18) and Allium cepa (UV value=0.16) were the most cited species in Bafra.

Conclusion

Once again, the present investigation has highlighted the gradual reduction in the use of folk medicines, and ethnobotanical knowledge has been falling into oblivion rapidly. Therefore, ethnobotanical inventory surveys should be undertaken throughout Turkey before this important cultural heritage becomes lost.

Özet

Amaç

Bu çalışmada Bafra’da yerel halk tarafından kullanılan halk ilaçlarının belirlenmesi ve belgelenmesi amaçlanmıştır.

Materyal ve metod

Bölgeye bilimsel geziler düzenlenmiş ve halk ilacı konusunda bilgi sahibi kişilerle görüşülerek halk ilaçları tespit edilmiştir. Çalışma esnasında 155 bitki örneği toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler 4 kantitatif indeks kullanılarak istatiksel olarak analiz edilmiştir: “Fikir birliği faktörü”, “Kullanım değeri”, “Bağıl alıntılanma sıklığı” ve “Kültürel önem indeksi”.

Bulgular

33 familyadan 53 cins ve 62 taksonun çeşitli hastalıkların tedavisinde kullanıldığı kaydedilmiştir. 5 türün (Anthemis coelopoda var. coelopoda, Tanacetum corymbosum, Quercus frainetto, Salvia forskahlei ve Lavatera punctate) Türkiye’de halk ilacı olarak kullanımına daha önce rastlanılmamıştır. Ayrıca, 13 halk ilacı için [Allium porrum, Brassica oleracea, Corylus maxima, Foeniculum vulgare, Helianthus annuus, Melissa officinalis subsp. altissima, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major subsp. intermedia, Prunus avium, Punica granatum, Sedum pallidum, Vitis sylvestris ve Zea mays] Türkiye’de daha önce kaydedilmeyen yeni kullanımlar da tespit edilmiştir. Halk ilaçları en çok iskelet-kas (FIC=0.6935), solunum (FIC=0.6909) ve dermatolojik sistem hastalıklarında (FIC=0.5555) kullanılmaktadır. Ayrıca, Cydonia oblonga (UV değeri=0.23), Urtica dioica (UV değeri=0.19), Sambucus ebulus (UV değeri=0.18) ve Alium cepa (UV değeri=0.16) Bafra’da en çok rapor edilen türlerdir.

Sonuç

Bu çalışmayla halk ilaçlarının kullanımındaki azalma ve etnobotanik bilginin hızla kaybolmaya yüz tutması bir kez daha vurgulanmıştır. Bu nedenle bu önemli kültürel miras yok olmadan önce etnobotanik envanter çalışmalarının tüm Türkiye’de yapılması gerekmektedir.

Introduction

Since the ancient times, plants have been an indispensable source on issues like material production, food, remedy etc. for humankind with their rich chemical and biological diversity. Plant samples that have been found in a Neanderthal grave (Shanidar Cave, at southern of Hakkari, Turkey) support this hypothesis [1], [2]. Developments on the medicine and phytochemistry in the recent past, thereby better understanding the healing potential of plants, attention to traditional and herbal medicine is increasing in the whole world. Following these improvements, a new science named ethnopharmacognosy, ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany has emerged by the efforts for documentation and inventory taking of folk medicines after 1980s [1]. These studies are extremely important in terms of the basis for new drug discovery. Antiarrhythmic agent digoxin (from Digitalis sp.), narcotic analgesic morphine (from Papaver somniferum L.), antimalarial drug quinine (from Cinchona sp.), analgesic, antipyretic drug aspirin (from Salix sp.), another antimalarial drug artemisinin (Artemisia annua L.) are only a few examples of these discoveries that are based on ethopharmacological investigations [3].

Due to its strategic location, Anatolian Peninsula has been the host for a high number of civilizations such as Hittites, Ionians, Greeks, Romans, Persians, Arabs and Turks. Each civilization has played an important role in the formation of this culture blend [4]. Plant sourced remedies were mentioned on achieved records from Sumerians, Hittites, Greeks. Hippocrates and Dioscorides described several herbal medicines; especially, most of these 600 plants mentioned in the “de Materia Medica” of Dioscorides originate from Anatolian Peninsula [2], [5]. In addition to its cultural richness, Anatolia is one of the regions which lies under the influence of three different phytogeographical regions (Euro-Siberian, Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian phytogeographical regions). According to latest records, there are 11707 taxa belong to 1320 genera and 167 families in the flora of Turkey; and the rate of endemism is also quite high (31.12%) [6], [7]. Combination of cultural wealth and rich flora could be accepted as the main reasons of richness of Anatolia’s traditional medicine culture.

Despite its cultural wealth and rich flora; organized and comprehensive ethnobotanical investigations could not be carried out in Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey) until the mid of 1980s, due to lack of attention of the official authorities. First organized and comprehensive ethnobotanical investigation in Turkey was conducted by Ekrem Sezik, Erdem Yeşilada and their research group in 1986 [1], [4], [8], [9]. Subsequently, this surveys attracted the attention of Turkish researchers and folk medicine surveys has gained acceleration.

As mentioned above, ethnobotanical surveys have been performed in some parts of Turkey, however there are still too many regions that have not been studied in terms of folk medicine. Due to modernism, fast-urbanisation, easy access to physicians and pharmacies, folk medicine knowledge has been disappearing [10]. Therefore, ethnobotanical documentation surveys should be carried out rapidly throughout Turkey, before this precious heritage disappears.

According to our literature survey, an ethnobotanical research that focused on Bafra (Samsun, Turkey) could not be found, hence, we aimed to determined and document folk medicines that are being used in Bafra district with the present study. By comparing our results with previous folk medicine investigations, finding new folk medicines and new usages of plants that have previously been determined as folk medicines were aimed as well. Additionally, in order to increase the reliability of results, obtained data was evaluated quantitatively with different statistical methods.

Materials and methods

Study area

Bafra district (Samsun), is surrounded Black Sea in the north; Kavak, Havza, Vezirköprü districts in the south; 19 Mayıs district in the east; and Alaçam district in the west (Figure 1). The district is situated at A5 square (Figure 1) in Davis’s grid system [11]. Its total area is 1750 km2 and distance from city centre is 51 km. The most important stream of region is Kızılırmak and it generates a lot of lakes (e.g. Balık, Karaboğaz, Dutdibi, Liman, Hayırlı, Çernek, Uzun, Tombul and İnce Lakes). Summers are hot and winters are wet in the region [12]. Mean yearly temperature is 13.6°C [13], mean humidity is 73%, mean annual absolute humidity is 5.0 g, and annual rainfall is about 700 mm [14].

Figure 1: The position of Bafra district (Samsun) in Turkey and visited locations.

Figure 1:

The position of Bafra district (Samsun) in Turkey and visited locations.

There are 115 villages in the district. According to 2010 records, population of Bafra is 144.465 and most of this population resides in the centre of the district (86.569) [15].

In Bafra, half of the land is cultivable and livelihood mainly depends on agriculture. Tobacco is the major agricultural product. Though the industry is not well developed, confection, flour, sunflower oil and forest products factories are found among the industrial branches [16].

Forty percent of the surface is covered with forests and these forests mainly consist of beech, oak, pine and fir trees. At the lowlands fruit trees are dominant, while reeds and shrubberies are the major vegetation around the lakes [16]. Floristic researches that embrace whole of the district could not be found. However, in an investigation that was carried out on the flora of Nebyan Mountain, 611 taxa belonging to 331 genera and 90 families were recorded [17].

Ethnobotanical survey

Data were collected by face-to-face interviews during scientific trips that were organised to 72 villages and four towns in July 2010 and June 2011. These locations were labelled on a map given in Figure 1. In every settlement area, in order to identify experts in the use of medicinal plants, mukhtars (the head of a village or neighbourhood in Turkey) or elders were consulted and interviews were carried out with suggested individuals. The interview methodology followed in the field studies was described by Sezik et al. and direct survey applications were avoided during face-to-face interview. Open and semi-structured questionnaire were used to obtain information related to folk medicines [9]. Questions included data on plants utilised medically, purpose of usage, used parts, preparation and application methods, collection sites. In addition, demographic information of participants was obtained during these interviews. After each interview, the plants that are being used as folk medicine were collected from their locations under guidance of informants or samples were received from the dried plant materials which are found at their homes. Botanical identification of obtained plant specimens was performed by Prof. Dr. Galip Akaydın using the “Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands” [11], [18], [19]. After botanical identification, herbarium specimens were prepared and preserved in GUE (Gazi University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium).

Statistical analyses and quantitative indices

To assess the reliability of results, four ethnobotanical indices were calculated: “informant consensus factor (FIC)”, “use value (UV)”, “relative frequency of citation (RFC)” and “cultural importance index (CI)”. “FIC” indicates the agreement among the informants concerning the use of a plant for each use category. Disorders were grouped into 12 categories (Table 1) and FIC was calculated for each category by using the following formula:

Table 1:

Pharmacological categories and FIC value of folk medicines used in Bafra.

Pharmacological categories Number of taxa and percentage in all species Number and percentages of citation FIC value
n % n %
Musculoskeletal system disorders 20 32 63 26 0.6935
Respiratory system disorders 18 29 56 23 0.6909
Dermatological system disorders 21 34 46 19 0.5555
Gastrointestinal system disorders 18 29 37 15 0.5277
Genitourinary system disorders 9 14 10 4 0.1111
Central nervous system disorders 3 5 9 3 0.7500
Eye-ear disorders 4 6 7 3 0.5000
Metabolic disorders 4 6 4 2 0.0000
Cardiovascular disorders 4 6 4 2 0.0000
Immunity disorders 2 3 3 1 0.5000
Mouth and tooth disorders 2 3 2 1 0.0000
Animal disorders 1 2 2 1 1.0000

F IC = ( η u r η t ) / ( η u r 1 ) .

ηur is the total number of use reports for each pharmacological category and ηt is the number of taxa used in that pharmacological category. Increase at FIC value (close to 1) represents the acceptance of a taxon in the treatment of particular illness by the participants; while low degrees (close to 0) indicates the disagreement on which plants to use [20], [21], [22].

The “UV” demonstrates the relative cultural importance of each folk medicines known locally and is calculated as follow:

UV = Σ ( U / n ) .

U” refers to the number of use-reports cited by each participant for a taxon and “n” refers to the number of informants taking part in the survey. High use value displays that the mentioned folk medicine is more preferred in the studied population [22], [23].

To assess the local importance of folk medicines, “RFC” was calculated as follow:

RFC = F C / N .

FC” is the number of informants that cited a specific folk medicine; while “N” is the total number of informants [24].

“CI” was another index that has been calculated for estimating the cultural significance of each taxon with the following formula:

CI = İ = 1 İ = N U ( URi N )

here, N stands for number of informants; while URi stands for the use report in each pharmacological category [24].

Results

Eighteen scientific trips were conducted in 72 settlements in June and July between 2010 and 2011. During these scientific trips, interviews were conducted with 95 residents. Information about folk medicines, as well as demographic properties of the participants were obtained. Collected data is presented in Table 2. As could be seen in Table 2, 32.0% of participants are emigrant; while the 18.0% of them were Laz. Considering the age distribution, 43.2% of persons who are knowledgeable about folk medicine are older than 66 years old. 33.7% of the participants are 51–65 years old, 20.0% of participants 36–50 years old; while persons under the age of 35 only constitute 3.1% of the participants. Approximately one third of participants were male (62 females, 33 males). When we consider the educational status, 79.7% of the individuals were primary school graduates or less. Most of the participants were farmer (89.0%). Interviewed people expressed that they have learnt folk medicines from their elderly relatives (61.0%), their society (17.9%) or media (13.7%). To prevent contamination of traditional knowledge, media sourced folk medicines are not included in this paper. 54.8% of interviewed people firstly consult a doctor in the case of an illness. In addition, 87.3% of the participants expressed that they use plants as medicine and food, but number of people who declare that they use plants as only medicine or as only food is few (1.1% and 11.6%, respectively).

Table 2:

Demographic characteristics and some other statistics about the habits of using folk medicines.

Female Male Total %
Age (n=95)
 ≤35 3 0 3 3.1
 36–50 11 8 19 20.0
 51–65 23 9 32 33.7
 66≤ 25 16 41 43.2
Education (n=94)
 Illiterate 11 1 12 12.8
 Literate 12 6 18 19.1
 Primary school 31 14 45 47.8
 Middle school 6 10 16 17.0
 High school 0 1 1 1.1
 University 1 1 2 2.2
Employment (n=90)
 Farmer 53 27 80 89.0
 Housewife 2 0 2 2.2
 Retired 2 3 5 5.5
 Other 0 3 3 3.3
Inhabitancy (n=50)
 Native born 10 7 17 34.0
 Laz 5 4 9 18.0
 Emigrant 10 6 16 32.0
 Albanian 3 2 5 10.0
  Other 7 4 11 >22.0
 Other 4 4 8 16.0
Whom the folk medicines have been learned from? (n=95)
 From elderly relatives 43 15 58 61.0
 Society 10 7 17 17.9
 Media 7 6 13 13.7
 Not remembered 2 4 6 6.3
 Other 0 1 1 1.1
Which purposes are the plants used for? (n=95)
 Medicine 1 0 1 1.1
 Food 7 4 11 11.6
 Medicine and food 53 30 83 87.3
Where are the plants that are used as folk medicine supplied from? (n=92)
 Around the village 16 12 28 30.4
 Market place 8 12 20 21.7
 Town 15 10 25 27.2
 Around the village and market place 10 8 18 19.6
 Other 0 1 1 1.1
In the case of illness, firstly … (n=93)
 He/she goes to the doctor 30 21 51 54.8
 He/she searches his/her own remedy 0 0 0 0.0
 He/she goes to the doctor and searches his/her own remedy 30 12 42 45.2

After identification of 155 specimens collected during scientific trips, 53 genera and 53 species (62 taxa) in 33 families were determined to be used in the treatment of different disorders. In the Table 3, folk medicines are presented with their localities, local names, the parts used as medicine, therapeutic uses etc. As it could be understood from Table 3, Rosaceae (eight taxa), Lamiaceae (seven taxa) and Asteraceae (five taxa) are the most referred families in our study area. Folk medicines are mainly used after being processed like decoction, infusion or maceration (91%). Decoction is the most preferred method for preparing folk medicines (34 taxa are used with this type of preparation). Eighty-five percent of the plants are used alone, while the remaining take part in polyherbal medicines or are used with animal products like yoghurt. Considering the used plant parts, folk medicines are mainly prepared from leaves (32%) and followed by fruits (19%) and aerial parts (13%) (Figure 2). Sixty-two percent of folk medicines are herbs; 8% are shrubs and 29% are trees. Evaluation of folk medicines according to pharmacologic categories revealed that plants are mostly used for dermatological disorders (21 taxa, 34%), musculoskeletal disorders (20 taxa, 32%), respiratory and gastrointestinal system disorders (18 taxa, 29%). However, considering the FIC values, this order is different; animal disorders is located at the first place (FIC=1.0); and followed by central nervous system (FIC=0.75), musculoskeletal and respiratory system disorders (FIC=0.69) (Table 1). The highest UV are observed with Cydonia oblonga Mill., Urtica dioica L., Sambucus ebulus L. and Allium cepa (0.23; 0.19; 0.18 and 0.16, respectively). There is a little difference on this order according to RFC and CI: C. oblonga is at the first place (RFC=0.23; CI=0.23), U. dioica is at the second order (RFC=0.13; CI=0.14) and Allium cepa is at the third order (RFC=0.11; CI=0.11) (Table 3).

Table 3:

Folk medicines used by indigenous people in Bafra district (Samsun, Turkey).

Family and scientific name (GUE no) Local name Loc.b Used partc Utilisation, preparation and application methodc Previously recorded folk medicine usages RFC UV CI
Apiaceae
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (3085) Dereotu, doruk otu 26 A.p. For decreasing high blood glucose level: d. with lemon fruit juicea For gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, rheumatism, urinary system disorders, as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antilithic, diuretic, antiseptic, antitussive, hearth stimulant, galactogogue and sedative [25], [26], [27], [28] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman (3123, 3124) Maydanoz 39 L. For sore throat; roasted with F.o. of Helianthus annuus, wrapped on necka For eczema, eye health, haemorrhoids, stomach-ache, infection, kidney diseases, shortness of breath, sore in mouth, urethral inflammation, urinary system infections, vaginitis and as diuretic [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33] 0.02 0.02 0.02
45 A.p. For constipation; d.a
Apocynaceae
Nerium oleander L. (3112) Zakkum 39 L. For itching on feet; d., feet are kept on it For abscess, scabies, rheumatism and cancer [28], [34], [35] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Asteraceae
Anthemis coelopoda Boiss. var. coelopoda (3046) Papatya 39 F. For sinusitis; d. N.r. 0.01 0.01 0.01
Crepis foetida L. subsp. rhoeadifolia (Bieb.) Celak (3060, 3061) Sütlü ot, süt düven 4, 8 H. For increasing milk supply of cow; cows are fed with ita N.r. 0.02 0.02 0.02
Helianthus annuus L. (3086) Ay çiçeği 1 F.o. For abscess and whitlow in finger; Allium cepa B. were scooped up and put on ember. White soap and F.o. obtained from Helianthus annuus are put inside of it. a.a.a.a For respiratory tract diseases and fever [25] 0.06 0.07 0.06
3 F.o. For alopecia; F.s. of Punica granatum crushed, Helianthus annuus F.o. is added, a.a.a.a
9 F.o. For burns; boiled with white soap and white fax, a.a.a.a
29 F.o. For sore throat; Allium porrum L. are roasted with F.o. obtained from Helianthus annuus, wrapped on throat
39 F.o. For sore throat; as described for Petroselinum crispum
61 F.o. For earache; dripped on eara
Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Sch. Bip. (3162) Papatya 1 F. For abdominal pain, dyspepsia and as carminative; d. N.r. 0.01 0.03 0.01
Tanacetum parthenium Sch. Bip. (3163) Papatya 51 F. For inflammation; d. For cough and tonsillitis [36] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Betulaceae
Corylus maxima Mill. (3059) Fındık 39 L. For kidney stone; as teaa For itching, snake bite, tuberculosis, as aphrodisiac [37] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Boraginaceae
Trachystemon orientalis D. Don (3175) Deve pancarı 45 L. For constipation and as expectorant; d. For breast cancer, flatulence, stomach-ache, inflamed wounds, and rheumatism [37] 0.01 0.02 0.02
Brassicaceae
Brassica oleracea L. Kara kelem, kara lahana, siyah lahana 6 L. For rheumatism: warmed up, a.a.a. or d. For abscess, hordeolum, cough, high fever, pneumonia, headache, hoarseness, stomach-ache, ulcer, as digestive [33], [34], [37], [38], [39] 0.04 0.05 0.04
26 L. For varicosis; boiled in water, wrap on lega
54 L. For sore throat; warmed up, applied on throata
67 L. For boil; warmed up, a.a.a.
Caprifoliaceae
Sambucus ebulus L. (3148, 3149, 3150, 3151, 3152, 3153, 3154) Yivdin, sultan otu 1 L., F. For rheumatism and leg pain; p.w., a.a.a. For abscess, burns, eczema, fungal diseases, wounds, urticaria, asthma, common cold, cough, high fever, sore throat, sunstroke, bee bite, scorpion bite, snake bite, bruises, oedema, inflammation, malaria, mastitis, rheumatic pain, expelling worms, haemorrhoids, stomach-ache, sterility, as analgesic, diuretic, tonic [8], [26], [31], [34], [37], [40], [41] 0.09 0.18 0.09
7 L. For bruises and injuries; roasted with flour, a.a.a.
24, 48, 49, 67 L. For bruises and injuries; warm up, a.a.a.
66 L. For rheumatism and leg pain; warmed up, a.a.a.
Cornaceae
Cornus mas L. (3057, 3058) Kiren, kızılcık 24 Fr.

Fr., L.
For diarrhoea; int., d. For cough; int., d. For abdominal pain, diarrhoea, bronchitis, common cold, cough, flu, cardiac diseases, hyperglycaemia, nephritis, urinary inflammation, sun stroke, as antifungal, antipyretic [26], [28], [30], [32], [35], [37], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43] 0.02 0.02 0.02
Crassulaceae
Sedum sp. (3055) Temro çiçeği 39 Lt. For earache; crushed and obtained juice is dropped to ear

For ‘temro’ (erythema and wet wounds on hands); a.a.a.
0.01 0.02 0.01
Sedum pallidum M. Bieb. (3155) Kedi otu 3 L. For wound healing; crushed, a.a.a.a For heat rash in foot [44] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Equisetaceae
Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (3081) Çam otu 3 L. For rheumatismal pain: d. For acne, chronic eczema, arteriosclerosis, cardiac deficiency, asthma, cystitis, dysuria, kidney disorders, prostatic hypertrophy, expelling worms, stomach-ache, haemorrhoids, mouth infection, rheumatism, as expectorant, antifungal agent [26], [27], [30], [31], [34], [40], [41], [43], [45] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Fabaceae
Phaseolus vulgaris L. (3125) Kuru fasülye 11 Fr. For dog bite; a.a.a. For bruises, nausea, wounds [33], [36], [38] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Fagaceae
Quercus frainetto Ten. (3138) Pelit ağacı 1 T. As antiseptic for wounds; heated, a.a.a. N.r. 0.01 0.01 0.01
Gentianaceae
Centaurium erythraea Rafn (3053, 3054) Mayasıl otu 1 A.p. For haemorrhoids; mixed with honey, eaten on empty stomach For bronchitis, cut, eczema, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, haemorrhoids, hypercholesterolemia, goitre, malaria, as anti-inflammatory, appetizer, stomachic [25], [31], [41], [45] 0.02 0.02 0.02
26 A.p. For haemorrhoids; d. with Juglans regia L. and Mentha sp. L., as sitz bath
Hypericaceae
Hypericum perforatum L. (3087, 3088, 3089) Sarı kantaron, bronşit otu 8 F., L. For bronchitis; d. For abdominal pain, constipation, enteritis, expelling worms, stomach diseases, antihypertensive, arteriosclerosis, anti-inflammatory, asthma, bronchitis, chest diseases, common cold, pharyngitis, shortness of breath, tuberculosis, cancer, eczema, herpes labialis, wound healing, cardiac diseases, dermal diseases, earache, urinary diseases, diabetes, facial paralysis, insomnia, internal haemorrhage, osteoporosis, rheumatism, toothache, as antifungal, antihaemorrhagic, antipyretic, appetizer, diaphoretic, sedative [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [33], [34], [35], [38], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46] 0.03 0.04 0.03
13 F. As bronchodilator in influenza; i.
26 F. For arthritis and rheumatismal pain; i.
Juglandaceae
Juglans regia L. (3090, 3091) Ceviz 1 L. For rheumatism and leg pain; d., feet are kept in it For abscess, acne, bee bite, eczema, oedema, cancer, cardiac disorders, cholesterol lowering, vasodilator, expelling worms, digestive problems, haemorrhoids, headache, vaginitis, goitre, kidney diseases, osteoporosis, rheumatic pain, respiratory tract problem, skin diseases, sunstroke, as analgesic, antifungal, astringent, appetizer, hypoglycaemic, tonic [8], [25], [27], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34], [35], [36], [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [46], [47] 0.02 0.03 0.02
26 L. For haemorrhoids; as described for Centaurium erythraea
Lamiaceae
Melissa officinalis L. subsp. altissima (Sm.) Arcangeli (3100) Melisa, oğul otu 26 L. For arthritis; int., i.a For cardiac problems, insomnia, as sedative [26] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley var. typhoides (3190) Kedi nanesi 6 L. For abdominal pain and as carminative; int., d. For abdominal pain, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, digestive problems, intestinal ailments, stomach disorders, cough, common cold, flu, tonsillitis, halitosis, headache, lumbago, sunstroke, skin ailments, as carminative [8], [26], [27], [29], [32], [35], [40], [42], [48] 0.01 0.02 0.01
Mentha piperita L. (3101, 3102, 3103, 3104) Nane 1 L. For nausea; int., d. For cold, cough, flu, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal diseases, as cardio tonic, vasodilator [25], [28], [33], [36] 0.06 0.08 0.06
For stomach-ache and abdominal pain; int., d.
45, 53, 57 L. For nausea; int., d. with lemon Fr.
57 L. As carminative; int., d.
69 L. For abdominal pain; int., d.
Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Grip otu, adaçayı 8, 13 A.p. For relaxing and as bronchodilator in influenza; int., d. For cold, flu, abdominal pain, stomach-ache, stomach diseases, diabetes, kidney stone, wound healing, as stomachic [34], [40], [41], [45], [47] 0.02 0.04 0.02
Salvia forskahlei L. (3147) Karadeniz adaçayı 4 A.p. For influenza and as expectorant; int., d. N.r. 0.01 0.02 0.01
Teucrium polium L. (3164) Ağrı otu 8 A.p. For rheumatic pains; int., d. For anorexia, common cold, flu, constipation, diarrhoea, nausea, loss of appetite, diabetes, cardiac disorders, eczema, wound healing, abdominal ailments, haemorrhoids, indigestion, stomach-ache, cancer, coronary failure, goitre, headache, menstrual pain, internal diseases, malaria, rheumatic pain, toothache, as analgesic, antipyretic, blood stopper, bronchodilator, carminative [8], [26], [27], [28], [29], [32], [34], [35], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46], [47], [48] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Thymus sp. (3165, 3166, 3167) Kekik, kesik otu 19 A.p. For cough; int., i. with Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica Inf. 0.03 0.03 0.03
44 L. For wound healing; a.a.a.
62 A.p. For haemorrhoids; int., d.
Lauraceae
Laurus nobilis L. (3093, 3094) Defne 6 L. For eczema; int., d. For abdominal pain, gastrointestinal diseases, asthma, bronchitis, cold, cough, sore throat, bee bite, cracked skin, scorpion bite, snake bite, cardiac diseases, diabetes, dermal disorders, kidney diseases, myalgia, rheumatic pain, toothache, as expectorant, sedative [8], [25], [28], [31], [35], [37], [41], [44] 0.02 0.02 0.02
39 Fr. For avoiding arthritis; crushed and eaten
Liliaceae
Allium cepa L. (3036, 3037, 3038, 3039) Kuru soğan, soğan 1 B. For abscess and whitlow; scooped up and put on ember. Oil and white soap are put inside of it, a.a.a. For abdominal pain, gastrointestinal diseases, abscess, bee bite, burns, wounds, scabies, arteriosclerosis, bronchitis, common colds, cough, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, urinary inflammation, uterus inflammation, woman infertility, oedema, fracture, rheumatic pain, headache, paralysis, as abortifacient, analgesic, laxative, expectorant [8], [25], [29], [30], [32], [33], [34], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [42], [48] 0.11 0.16 0.11
5 B. For cough; int., crushed and put in water
24, 47, 59 B. For abscess and whitlow; warmed up, a.a.a.
48 B. As panacea; int., d.
51 B. For fracture or dislocations; pounded with Olea europaea S. and Vitis sylvestris Fr., a.a.a.
54 B. For injuries with sharp objects; chopped up, roasted with butter, a.a.a.
55 B. For bruises; warmed up, a.a.a.
62 B. For pain in arm or leg; warmed up, a.a.a.
Allium porrum L. Pırasa 29 L. For sore throat: roasted with oil, wrapped on throata For earache and woman infertility [38], [40] 0.03 0.03 0.03
S. For haemorrhoids: int., ia
54 W.p. For earache; crushed, the obtained water dripped to ear
Allium sativum L. (3043, 3044, 3045) Sarımsak 1, 56 B. For sunstroke; crushed, mixed with yoghurt and applied on head For alopecia, eczema, inflamed wounds, insect bite, snake bite, scorpion bite, pustule, tinea barbae, cold, flu, diabetes, high cholesterol, expelling worms, food intoxication, haemorrhoids, poisoning, earache, erectile dysfunction, halitosis, hordeolum, hydrophobia, lumbago, rheumatism, poultry diseases, sunstroke, as hypotensive [9], [25], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34], [36], [37], [38], [40], [42] 0.08 0.08 0.08
4 B. For sunstroke; crushed in vinegar, mixed with yoghurt, applied on head
31 B. For decreasing high blood pressure; eaten on empty stomach
47, 61, 67 B. For earache; warmed up, placed in to ear
59 B. For earache; crushed, obtained water mixed with urine and dripped to ear
Malvaceae
Lavatera punctata All. (3095, 3096) Ebegümeci 1 L. For stomach-ache; int., i. N.r. 0.02 0.02 0.02
66 L. For stomach-ache; cooked with onion, rice and tomato paste, eaten
Malva neglecta Wallr. (3098) Ebegümeci 4 L., R. For rheumatism and arthritis; boiled and eaten with yoghurt For abscess, acne, eczema, psoriasis, wound healing, bruises, broken bone or dislocated bones, muscular pains, rheumatism, common cold, respiratory problems, sinusitis, cancer, diabetes, hearth disorders, hematoma, gastrointestinal diseases, gynaecological diseases, infertility, mastitis, kidney pain, menstrual pains, miscarriage, renal diseases, urinary infection, vaginitis, vaginal candidiasis, hypercholesterolemia, immune stimulant, internal infection, liver diseases, pain in mouth, wound, as abortifacient, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, bronchodilator [9], [25], [27], [28], [29], [30], [32], [33], [34], [35] 0.01 0.02 0.01
Moraceae
Ficus carica L. (3082, 3083, 3084) Incir 7, 33, 60 Lt. For wart: a.a.a. For abscess, callus, eczema, mastitis, scorpion bite, wart, asthma, cough, flu, cancer, constipation, diarrhoea, gastric ulcer, stomach-ache, earache, hepatitis, infertility, toothache, as expectorant [8], [25], [27], [28], [31], [32], [34], [35], [37], [39], [41], [43] 0.03 0.03 0.03
Morus nigra L. (3111) Kara dut 39 Fr. For oral aphthae; chewed and a.a.a. For amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, anaemia, asthma, sore throat, diabetes, eczema, herpes infection, haemorrhoids, hepatitis, gout, kidney diseases, mouth diseases, as abortifacient [27], [29], [30], [34], [35], [37], [38], [40], [41], [42] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Oleaceae
Olea europaea L. (3120) Zeytin, siyah zeytin 7 F.o. For burns and avoiding burn marks; boiled egg is roasted with F.o. Then the filtrate a.a.a. For abscess, oral wounds, removing nail/slivers from skin, scorpion bite, wound healing, cardio tonic, tachycardia, vasodilator, carminative, constipation, gastrointestinal cancers, haemorrhoids, common cold, cough, diabetes, high cholesterol, earache, eye diseases, foot swelling, hypertension, nodule, fractured or dislocated bones, muscular or rheumatic pain, sore throat [8], [25], [28], [31], [35], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40] 0.05 0.11 0.05
22 F.o. For burns and avoiding burn marks; mixed with beeswax, a.a.a.
24 Fr., F.o. For bruises and sprains; crushed, with F.o., a.a.a.
51 Fr. For bruises and sprains; as described for Allium cepa
61 Fr. For broken and dislocated bones; crushed with Vitis sylvestris Fr., a.a.a.
Pinaceae
Pinus sp. (3126) Kozalak 6 S. For urinary incontinence (in children); int., d. 0.02 0.02 0.02
10 Rs. For wrong healed bones; a.a.a., bone is broken again. Then broken bones are wrapped for proper healing
Plantaginaceae
Plantago lanceolata L. (3127, 3128) Sünitka, damar otu 36 L. For embolism; int., i. For abscess, bee bites, eczema, wart, wound healing, asthma, bronchitis, cough, tuberculosis, atherosclerosis, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, parasites in animals, stomach disorders, urinary tract inflammation, embolism, as antipyretic, haemostatic, sedative [26], [27], [29], [31], [32], [34], [35], [38], [40], [41], [42], [46], [47], [48] 0.02 0.02 0.02
55 L. For maturation of abscess; a.a.a.
Plantago major L. subsp. intermedia (Gilib.) Pilg. (3129, 3130, 3131, 3132) Sünitka, damarotu, sinir otu, siğilotu, yılan dili 1 L. For maturation of abscess; crushed and a.a.a. For abscess, eczema, wound healing, cancer, intrauterine inflammation, lung diseases, sore throat, haemorrhoids, stomach-ache, ulcer, tuberculosis, rheumatism, toothache, as anti-inflammatory [8], [26], [34], [36], [37], [39], [40], [45], [48] 0.05 0.05 0.05
30 W.p. For wrong healed bones; boiled with milk to prepare a poultice, a.a.a., bone is broken again. Then broken bone is wrapped for proper healinga
60 L. For warts; a.a.a.
66 L. For pain on knee; int., d.
Plantago major L. subsp. major (3133) Damar otu 9 L. As bronchodilator for influenza; int., d. For abscess, eczema, erysipelas, rash, wound healing, urticaria, asthma, bronchitis, cold, dyspnea, flu, cancer, diabetes, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, embolism, oedema, goitre, kidney stone, urinary inflammation, rheumatism, vaginitis, as analgesic, sedative [8], [27], [29], [30], [31], [32], [34], [36], [39], [40], [41], [42], [46], [49] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Poaceae
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (3079, 3080) Ayrık out 31 R. For kidney stone: int., d. For gonorrhoea, rheumatoid arthritis, shortness of breath, kidney stone, sterility, urinary antiseptic, as anti-inflammatory, diuretic [26], [27], [28], [35], [37], [40], [45], [49] 0.02 0.02 0.02
68 A.p. For pain in legs: int., d.
Triticum sp. (3176) Buğday 1 S. For diarrhoea; int., flour obtained from S. mixed with yoghurt and water 0.03 0.05 0.04
As blood stopper; leavened dough obtained from seed floor mixed with sugar, a.a.a.
7 S. For bruises and injuries; as described for Sambucus ebulus
59 S.h. As bronchodilator in influenza; mixed with water to prepare a poultice, applied on chest
Zea mays L. (3188, 3189) Mısır 3 S. For ringworm; heated on an iron surface, obtained oil a.a.a. For abdominal pain, haemorrhoids, intestinal worms, stomach-ache, cough, sore throat, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, oedema, kidney stone, prostatitis, urinary inflammation, goitre, as diuretic [29], [31], [32], [34], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [42], [44], [46] 0.03 0.03 0.03
4 S. For whitlow; flour obtained from seed is mixed with yoghurt and a.a.a.a
24 St. For rheumatic pain; int., d.a
Polygonaceae
Rumex sp. (3139) Efelik pancarı 8 A.p. As carminative; int., roasted with tomato paste and onion 0.01 0.01 0.01
Punicaceae
Punica granatum L. Acı nar 3 F.s. For baldness; as described for Helianthus annuusa For gastrointestinal diseases, stomach disorders, wounds on tongue, as hypoglycaemic [25], [38] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Ranunculaceae
Clematis sp. (3056) Ham tevek 29 Sm. For rheumatism: peeled Sm. is wrapped on affected area 0.01 0.01 0.01
Rosaceae
Cydonia oblonga Mill. (3062, 3063, 3064, 3065, 3066, 3067, 3068, 3069, 3070, 3071, 3072, 3073, 3074, 3075, 3076, 3077, 3078) Ayva 9 F.st. For cough: int., d. For breast feeding nipple wound, psoriasis, cancer, cardiac diseases, common cold, sore throat, respiratory tract problem, cystitis, dysuria, kidney stone, urinary disorders, sterility, gastrointestinal diseases, stomach-ache, headache, hypoglycaemic, as antihypertensive, appetizer, diuretic, tranquiliser [8], [25], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [33], [35], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [47] 0.23 0.23 0.23
45 L. For cough: int., m.
49, 69 L. For cough; int., i.
52 L. For constipation: int., d.
57 L. For common cold and flu: int., i.

For cough; int., d.
63 T. For cough: int., d.
1, 40, 47, 51, 53, 57, 60, 61, 65, 66, 71, 72 L. For cough; int., d.
Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer (3092) Karayemiş 6 Fr. For reducing high blood glucose levels; e.d. For headache, haemorrhoids, stomach-ache, hypertension, sore throat, as analgesic, antidiabetic, antipyretic [26], [37] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Mespilus germanica L. (3105, 3106, 3107, 3108, 3109, 3110) Töngel, muşmula 6, 7 L. For diarrhoea; int., i. For abdominal pain, anthelmintic, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, asthma, bronchitis, colds, cough, flu, tuberculosis, diabetes, eczema, hypertension [31], [37], [40], [43] 0.06 0.06 0.06
31 L., Fr. L. For diarrhoea; int., d.
40 L. For diarrhoea; int., d.
61 Fr. For cough; int., d.
63 L. For cough; int., d.
Prunus sp. (3134, 3135) Çakal eriği, kırmızı erik 7 Fr. For bronchitis; int., d. 0.02 0.02 0.02
39 Fr. As blood glucose regulatory; e.d.
Prunus avium (L.) L. (3136) Kiraz 5 S. Abdominal pain and as carminative (for babies); warmed up and wrapped on abdomena For dysuria, kidney stone [34], [38], [44] 0.02 0.03 0.02
6 F.st. For kidney stone; int., d. with Rosa canina Fr.
Rosa canina L. (3141, 3140, 3142) Kuşburnu, yaban gülü 6 Fr. For kidney stone and as diuretic; as described for Prunus avium For abdominal pain, diarrhoea, gallstones, haemorrhoids, inflamed gall bladder, intestinal disorders, stomach disorders, abscess, burns, eczema, itching, rash, wart, wound healing, allergy, common cold, dyspnoea, flu, respiratory tract disorders, cancer, cystitis, intrauterine inflammation, kidney disorders, diabetes, eye strain, heart diseases, hypertension, hepatitis, internal diseases, malaria, rheumatism, as aphrodisiac, immunotonic, tonic, vasodilator, panacea [8], [25], [26], [27], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34], [35], [36], [37], [38], [40], [41], [42], [43], [45], [46], [47], [48], [49] 0.03 0.04 0.03
9 Fr. For healthy living; as marmalade, eaten
40 Fr. For enhancing immunity in influenza; int., d.
Rubus sp. (3143, 3144) Böğürtlen 8 Fr. For aphthae; crushed, a.a.a. - 0.02 0.03 0.03
39 R. For inflammation and reducing high glucose levels; int., d.
Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees (3145) Böğürtlen 66 R. For haemorrhoids; int., d. For anaemia, asthenopia, bronchitis, diabetes, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, infertility, kidney stones, nephritis, prostatitis, wounds, as antiemetic and haemostatic [31], [37], [40], [41] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Salicaceae
Salix babylonica L. (3146) Söğüt 26 L. For rheumatic pain; int., i. For bronchitis, cough, headache, sunstroke [8], [31], [43] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Solanaceae
Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (3097) Domates 1 Fr. For whitlow; scoop out, fingers are kept in it For abscess, burns, scorpion bite, blood forming [33], [34], [36], [38] 0.01 0.01 0.01
Nicotiana tabacum L. (3113, 3114, 3115, 3116, 3117, 3118, 3119) Tütün 1 L. As antiseptic for incisions; crushed, a.a.a. For wound healing, as haemostatic [40], [47] 0.07 0.07 0.07
3, 7, 54, 69 L. As blood stopper; a.a.a.
61 L. As blood stopper; with sugar, a.a.a.
Solanum tuberosum L. (3156, 3157, 3158, 3159, 3160, 3161) Patates 1 Tb. For headache; sliced, red pepper is added and wrapped on forehead For bloodshot eyes, burns, eczema, oedema, headache, fever, swelling, as analgesic [33], [36], [38], [39], [40], [48] 0.06 0.06 0.06
7 Tb. For headache; sliced, salt is added and wrapped on forehead
39 Tb. For sun burn; sliced, a.a.a.
54 Tb. For headache in sunstroke; sliced, wrapped on forehead
54, 61 Tb. For headache; sliced, wrapped on forehead
Tiliaceae
Tilia rubra DC. subsp. caucasica (Rubr.) V. Engler (3168, 3169, 3170, 3171, 3172, 3173, 3174) Ihlamur, sünik 4, 40, 47, 63, 66 Inf. For common cold and cough; int., d. For cough, common cold, flu [28], [29], [37] 0.07 0.13 0.07
13 Inf. For softening throat in influenza; int., d.
19 Inf. For cough; as described for Thymus sp.
Urticaceae
Urtica dioica L. (3177, 3178, 3179, 3180, 3181, 3182, 3183, 3184, 3185) Sırgan, ısırgan 1, 52 L. For stomach-ache; int., d. For abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea, enteritis, gallbladder stones, haemorrhoids, inflammatory bowel, intestinal regulatory, stomach disorders, abscess, alopecia, eczema, fungal infection, itching, psoriasis, wounds, anaemia, cardiovascular diseases, common cold, respiratory diseases, cancer, urinary system diseases, diabetes, oedema, goitre, gynaecological 0.13 0.19 0.14
2 L. For reducing high blood pressure; applied on hands
9 A.p. For rheumatism and leg pain; boiled in water and wrapped on knees
29 A.p. As local anaesthetic during piercing ears; applied on ear
39 L. For rheumatism and leg pain; roasted with salt, wrapped on knees disorders, infertility, internal diseases, obesity, prostatitis, urinary system infection, liver disorders, osteoporosis, rheumatism, paralysis, sciatica, as abortifacient, aphrodisiac, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticoagulant, appetizer, bronchodilator, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic, tonic, panacea, prophylactic [8], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [46], [47], [48], [49]
48 S. For rheumatism and leg pain; eaten
51 L. For jaundice; crushed, obtained juice is drunk
60 A.p. For haemorrhoids; int., d.
60 R. As abortive; int., d.
61 L. For bruises and injuries; boiled in water, a.a.a., or crushed and a.a.a.
68 L. For rheumatism and leg pain; mixed with salt and wrapped on knees
Vitaceae
Vitis sylvestris C.C. Gmel. (3186, 3187) Üzüm, kara üzüm 6 B.s. For kidney stone; sap obtained from incised braches is drunka For anaemia, baldness, as blood stopper hair tonic [26], [40] 0.04 0.06 0.04
9 Fr. For high fever; ‘pekmez’ (Fr. are crushed, filtrated and boiled) obtained from Fr. is mixed with water and drunka
51 Fr. For broken and dislocated bones; as described for Allium cepaa
61 Fr. For broken and dislocated bones; as described for Olea europaeaa

    aNewly detected usages in Turkey.

    bThe localities that are expressed as number could be seen in Figure 1.

    ca.a.a., applied on affected are; A.p., aerial parts; B., bulb; B.s., branch sap; d., decoction; e.d., eaten directly; F., flower; F.o., fixed oil; Fr., fruit; F.s., fruit shell; F.st., fruit stalk; H., herb; i., infusion; Inf., inflorescence; int., internally; L., leaf; Lt., latex; m., maceration; N.r., no record has been found; p.w., poultice with water; R., root; Rs., resin; S., seed; S.h., seed husk; Sm., stem, St., stylus; T., twig; Tb., tuber; W.p., whole plant.

Figure 2: Percentage distribution chart of plant parts used in the treatment of ailments.

Figure 2:

Percentage distribution chart of plant parts used in the treatment of ailments.

Discussion

In Bafra, mostly referred plant families are Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Asteraceae in many studies that have been conducted in Turkey [29], [48]. Allium and Plantago are the most cited genera (three taxa), while the most referred species is C. oblonga (22 citations). Allium is the genus that is widely being used as food stuff, and Plantago is a cosmopolite genus that grows naturally in whole Anatolia, so coming across with these genera as the most cited ones is simply expected. Similarly, C. oblonga grows almost in every garden and in villages and it is actually easily accessible.

Easily accessible plant parts like leaves, aerial parts and fruits are encountered once again as similar to our previous study [36]. Dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders are determined to be the mostly cited health problems in Bafra district. Considering village life and participants age range (77% of participant are older than 50 years old), these findings are acceptable. Highest UV, RFC and CI values are observed on C. oblonga and U. dioica. As mentioned before C. oblonga, likewise U. dioica, are wildly grows almost in every garden, hence prominence of these plant species is expected.

As it could be seen in Table 3, we compered our findings with previous studies and noticed that five folk medicines (Anthemis coelopoda var. coelopoda, Tanacetum corymbosum, Quercus frainetto, Salvia forskahlei and Lavatera punctata) have not been recorded as folk medicine in Turkey before. In addition, new usages of 13 folk medicines in Turkey were also detected [Allium porrum, Brassica oleracea, Corylus maxima, Foeniculum vulgare, Helianthus annuus, Melissa officinalis subsp. altissima, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major subsp. intermedia, Prunus avium, Punica granatum, Sedum pallidum, Vitis sylvestris and Zea mays].

Anthemis coelopoda is used for sinusitis as decoction in our study area. Anti-bacterial activity of chloroform extract of A. coelopoda root and stem against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were investigated by disc diffusion, well diffusion and microdilution methods. The results revealed MIC values between 0.187 and 1.5 mg/mL and strongest antibacterial activity was observed against B. subtilis [50]. According to our literature survey, anti-bacterial activity of various other Anthemis species or compounds that isolated from Anthemis species were studied in detail and determined to have strong antimicrobial activity [51], [52], [53], [54], [55], [56], [57], [58], [59], [60], [61], [62]. Hence, according to these findings, usage of A. coelopoda for sinusitis could possibly be thought to be based on its antimicrobial activity.

Tanacetum corymbosum is used for abdominal pain and as carminative in Bafra and best of our knowledge, its gastro-preventive activity has not been studied yet. Nevertheless, anti-ulcerogenic activity of T. vulgare L. and T. larvatum (Griseb. ex Pant.) Kanitz’s have been previously investigated. Chloroform extract of T. vulgare and parthenolide that isolated from chloroform extract, showed significant dose dependent ulcer inhibition (27% to 100% ulcer inhibition ratio) with ethanol-induced gastric ulcer method [63]. Similarly, T. larvatum’s chloroform extract decreased gastric damage on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in vivo [64].

It is known that some oak species have antimicrobial activity. For example, ethanol extract and some substances [4,5-di-O-galloyl(+) protoquercitol and 3,5-di-O-galloyl protoquercitol] isolated from ethanol extracts of Quercus acuta Thunb. trunk were determined to have antibacterial activity against Bacillus brevis, B. coagulans, B. stearothermophilus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zones were in the range of 11 and 23 mm) [65]. Quercus frainetto is being used as antiseptic in Bafra and antimicrobial effect is likely to be found as other Quercus species.

Salvia forskahlei is utilised as folk medicine in our study area in the influenza. According to literature survey, antimicrobial activity of different Salvia species has been studied, except S. forskahlei. In a study by Chung et al. [66], antiviral effect of six compounds that have been isolated from S. miltiorrhiza, were evaluated against Enterovirus 71 and only rosmarinic acid and magnesium lithospermate B were reported to demonstrate important anti-Enterovirus 71 activity. Antimicrobial effects of S. limbata C.A. Mey. and S. sclarea L. methanol extract and essential oil were examined on 35 bacteria, 19 fungi and a yeast with disk diffusion, micro-well dilution, and MIC agar dilution technics. As a result, only essential oil of S. limbata showed activity on some of microorganisms (MIC values were in the range of 15.62 and 250 μg/mL) [67]. Antimicrobial activity of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside isolated from S. leucantha Cav. was evaluated on six microorganisms with agar diffusion method and found to have activity at different degrees. In the same study, the aforementioned compound is represented to have significant wound healing activity as well [68]. In a study by Haznedaroğlu et al. [69], the essential oil of S. tomentosa Miller were displayed to remarkably inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis; while found to have no effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Various Salvia species are widely used throughout the world for diseases such as influenza, common cold and the findings that we have given above could be thought to support its usages for these phenomenon.

We could not find any literature information on L. punctata, another plant that was determined by this study for the first time as being used as a folk medicine.

Foeniculum vulgare is used as folk medicine in the case of diseases like obesity, rheumatism, urinary system disorders in different parts of Turkey, but its usage for decreasing blood glucose level was determined first time with our study. Anti-hyperglycaemic effect of mixture that consist of Terminalia chebula Retz. water extract, ethanol extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. and Nigella sativa L., ethanol-water extracts of rhubarb, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Pimpinella anisum L. and F. vulgare have been shown in rats that are subjected to high fat diet [70]. In different studies, methanol extract and essential oil of F. vulgare were determined to cause decrease in plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats [71], [72]. With these aforementioned studies, consistency of bioactivity results with folk medicinal usages is demonstrated once again.

Topical application of Helianthus annuus seed oil was demonstrated to be beneficial against the wounds on horses [73]. Anti-inflammatory activity of diterpene acids (grandiflorolic, kaurenoic and trachylobanoic acids) isolated from H. annuus were evaluated and they presented in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity [74]. These findings partly support the usages of H. annuus seed oil in abscess, whitlow and burns that firstly recorded in our study area.

Usage of Melissa officinalis subsp. altissima on arthritis was recorded first time in Turkey by this study. Previously, water extract of M. officinalis was demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory activity by reducing in the amounts of the exudate, in the numbers of leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells [75]. Additionally, ethanolic extract of M. officinalis leaves also showed good analgesic activity by inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, and glutamate-induced pain [76]. Results of these studies are also consistent with folk medicinal usages.

Folk medicine knowledge is a very important heritage. However, factors like decrease in village population, increase in the educational status, ease of reaching to orthodox medicine and drugs cause unconcern on folk medicine, therefore folk medicine knowledge is rapidly disappearing. Recently, researches on folk medicine are becoming widespread, but there are still many areas that have not been investigated in Turkey and detailed studies should be conduct before the loss of this precious heritage.

Acknowledgements

This study was conducted as a part of a master thesis named “Folk medicines of Bafra (Samsun)” (Elif Karcı, Gazi University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacognosy, Phytotherapy Program, Ankara, 2013) and was presented as poster at the “XX. Bitkisel İlaç Hammaddeleri Toplantısı”, Antalya Turkey.

    Conflict of interest: There are no conflicts of interest among the authors.

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Received: 2017-07-03
Accepted: 2017-08-01
Published Online: 2017-08-30
Published in Print: 2017-08-28

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston