Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton May 23, 2017

Free Choice under Ellipsis

Luka Crnič
From the journal The Linguistic Review

Abstract

The ellipsis of a VP whose antecedent contains an occurrence of so-called free choice any is highly constrained: it is acceptable only if the elided VP is appropriately embedded. We show that while this is unexpected on the common approaches to free choice and ellipsis, it is predicted on a theory of any that takes its domain to stand in a dependency relation with a c-commanding alternative-sensitive operator (cf. Lahiri 1998, Focus and negative polarity in Hindi. Natural Language Semantics 6(1). 57–123) and that takes free choice inferences to be generated by covert exhaustification in grammar (e.g., Fox 2007, Free choice and the theory of scalar implicatures. In Uli Sauerland & Penka Stateva (eds.), Presupposition and implicature in compositional semantics, 71–120. Palgrave Macmillan; Chierchia 2013, Logic in grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to the reviewers for and the audiences at GLOW 38 (University of Paris 8) and SALT 25 (Stanford University), and the two reviewers for The Linguistic Review, for their input. Thanks also to Danny Fox, Yosef Grodzinsky, Kyle Johnson, and Marie-Christine Meyer for discussion, and Brian Buccola and Nofar Cohen for their written comments on the manuscript. This research has been supported by grants from Israel Science Foundation (1926/14), German-Israeli Foundation for Scientic Research and Development (2353), and Volkswagen Stiftung (VWZN3181).

References

Bar-Lev, Moshe & Daniel Margulis. 2014. Hebrew kol: A universal quantifier as an undercover existential. Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 18. 60–76.Search in Google Scholar

Bowler, Margit. 2014. Conjunction and disjunction in a language without ‘and’. Semantics and Linguistic Theory 24. 137–155.Search in Google Scholar

Bresnan, Joan. 1971. A note on the notion “identity of sense anaphora”. Linguistic Inquiry 2(4). 589–597.Search in Google Scholar

Chierchia, Gennaro. 2013. Logic in grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Chierchia, Gennaro, Danny Fox & Benjamin Spector. 2011. The grammatical view of scalar implicatures and the relationship between semantics and pragmatics. In Paul Portner, Claudia Maienborn & Klaus von Heusinger (eds.), Handbook of semantics. Berlin: Mouton de GruyterSearch in Google Scholar

Collins, Chris & Paul Postal. 2014. Classical NEG raising. Cambride, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Crnič, Luka. 2013. How to get even with desires and imperatives. In Eva Csipak, Regine Eckardt & Manfred Sailer (eds.), Beyond any and ever, 127–154. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Crnič, Luka. 2014. Non-monotonicity in NPI licensing. Natural Language Semantics 20. 169–217.Search in Google Scholar

Crnič, Luka, Emmanuel Chemla & Danny Fox. 2015. Scalar implicatures of embedded disjunction. Natural Language Semantics 23(4). 271–305.10.1007/s11050-015-9116-xSearch in Google Scholar

Dayal, Veneeta. 1998. Any as inherently modal. Linguistics and Philosophy 21(5). 433–476.10.1023/A:1005494000753Search in Google Scholar

Dayal, Veneeta. 2004. The universal force of free choice any. Linguistic variation yearbook 4(1). 5–40.Search in Google Scholar

Dayal, Veneeta. 2009. Variation in English free choice items. Universals and variation: Proceedings of GLOW in Asia VII 237–256.Search in Google Scholar

Dayal, Veneeta. 2013. A viability constraint on alternatives for free choice. In Anamaria Falaus (ed.), Alternatives in semantics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Search in Google Scholar

Eckardt, Regine. 2005. Too poor to mention: Subminimal events and negative polarity items. In Claudia Maienborn & Angelika Wöllstein (eds.), Event arguments in syntax, semantics and discourse, 301–330. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Fiengo, Robert & Robert May. 1994. Indices and identity, vol. 24. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Fox, Danny. 2000. Economy and semantic interpretation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Fox, Danny. 2007. Free choice and the theory of scalar implicatures. In Uli Sauerland & Penka Stateva (eds.), Presupposition and implicature in compositional semantics, 71–120. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Search in Google Scholar

Fox, Danny & Roni Katzir. 2011. On the characterization of alternatives. Natural Language Semantics 19(1). 87–107.10.1007/s11050-010-9065-3Search in Google Scholar

Fox, Danny & Benjamin Spector. 2009. Economy and embedded exhaustification. Handout from a talk at Cornell. Cambridge, MA: MIT & ENS.Search in Google Scholar

Gajewski, Jon. 2009. Innocent exclusion is not contradiction free. Manuscript, University of Connecticut.Search in Google Scholar

Gajewski, Jon. 2013. An analogy between a connected exceptive phrase and polarity items. In Eva Csipak, Regine Eckardt & Manfred Sailer (eds.), Beyond any and ever, vol. 262, 183–212. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Giannakidou, Anastasia. 2000. Negative … concord? Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 18(3). 457–523.10.1023/A:1006477315705Search in Google Scholar

Greenberg, Yael. 2015. A novel problem for the likelihood-based semantics of even. Semantics & Pragmatics 9(2). 1–28.Search in Google Scholar

Griffiths, James & Anikó Lipták. 2014. Contrast and island sensitivity in clausal ellipsis. Syntax 17(3). 189–234.10.1111/synt.12018Search in Google Scholar

Hardt, Daniel. 1993. Verb phrase ellipsis: Form, meaning, and processing. University of Pennsylvania dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Heim, Irene. 1997. Predicates or formulas? Evidence from ellipsis. In Aaron Lawson & Eun Cho (eds.), Semantics and linguistic theory 7, 197–221. Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Kadmon, Nirit & Fred Landman. 1993. Any. Linguistics and Philosophy 16(4). 353–422.10.1007/BF00985272Search in Google Scholar

Katzir, Roni. 2013. On the roles of markedness and contradiction in the use of alternatives. Manuscript, Tel Aviv University.Search in Google Scholar

Krifka, Manfred. 1995. The semantics and pragmatics of weak and strong polarity items. Linguistic Analysis 25. 209–257.Search in Google Scholar

Lahiri, Utpal. 1998. Focus and negative polarity in Hindi. Natural Language Semantics 6(1). 57–123.Search in Google Scholar

Lahiri, Utpal. 2006. Scope, presuppositions and dimensions of meaning: Some observations on scalar additive particles in English, Hindi and Spanish. Handout from Sinn und Bedueutung 11, Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu-Fabra.Search in Google Scholar

Lee, Young-Suk & Laurence R. Horn. 1994. Any as indefinite + even. Manuscript, Yale University.Search in Google Scholar

Menéndez-Benito, Paula. 2010. On universal free choice items. Natural Language Semantics 18(1). 33–64.10.1007/s11050-009-9050-xSearch in Google Scholar

Merchant, Jason. 2001. The syntax of silence: Sluicing, islands, and the theory of ellipsis. Oxford: Oxford University Press on Demand.Search in Google Scholar

Merchant, Jason. 2013. Polarity items under ellipsis. In Lisa Lai-Shen Cheng & Norbert Corver (eds.), Diagnosing syntax, 441–462. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, Marie-Christine. 2016. Generalized free choice and missing alternatives. Journal of Semantics 33(4). 703–754.Search in Google Scholar

Nakanishi, Kimiko. 2012. The scope of even and quantifier raising. Natural language semantics 20(2). 115–136.10.1007/s11050-011-9077-7Search in Google Scholar

Rooth, Mats. 1985. Association with focus. Amherst: University of Massachusetts PhD dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Rooth, Mats. 1992. Ellipsis redundancy and reduction redundancy. In Steve Berman & Arild Hestvik (eds.), Proceedings of the stuttgart ellipsis workshop. Arbeitspapiere des Sonderforschungsbereichs 340, Sprachtheoretische Grundlagen für die Computerlinguistik, Bericht Nr. 29–1992.Search in Google Scholar

Sag, Ivan. 1976. Deletion and logical form. Massachusetts Institute of Technology PhD dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Schwarz, Bernhard. 2000. Notes on even. Manuscript, University of Stuttgart.Search in Google Scholar

Singh, Raj, Ken Wexler, Andrea Astle, Deepthi Kamawar & Danny Fox. 2013. Children interpret disjunction as conjunction: consequences for the theory of scalar implicature. Manuscript, Carleton University, MIT, Hebrew University Jerusalem.Search in Google Scholar

Spector, Benjamin. 2006. Aspects de la pragmatique des opérateurs logiques. Université Paris 7 dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

van Craenenbroeck, Jeroen. 2010. The syntax of ellipsis: Evidence from dutch dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

van Craenenbroeck, Jeroen & Jason Merchant. 2013. Ellipsis phenomena. In Marcel Den Dikken (ed.), The cambridge handbook of generative syntax, 701–745. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2017-5-23
Published in Print: 2017-10-26

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston