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Two is too much…in the phonology!

A phonological account of unfaithful multiple reduplication

Eva Zimmermann
From the journal The Linguistic Review

Abstract

A purely phonological account of reduplication based on the affixation of empty prosodic nodes predicts the attested typology of multiple reduplication. Languages that can combine more than one reduplication-triggering morpheme in a word differ in (1) whether all reduplicants surface faithfully, (2) whether they systematically avoid adjacent multiple reduplicants, or (3) whether one of the reduplicants is smaller than expected if another reduplicant is adjacent in multiple reduplication contexts. Morphological accounts of reduplication not only violate the modularity between phonology and morphology, they also fail to predict this attested typology.


Corresponding author: Eva Zimmermann, Leipzig, Germany, E-mail:

Funding source: DFG

Award Identifier / Grant number: ZI 1717/1-1

Acknowledgement

For valuable comments and discussion I am grateful to the participants of the meeting of the Vancouver Phonology group on April 07, 2018, of the linguistics colloquium at Victoria on April 12, 2018, and of the mfm Fringe meeting ‘Phonological solutions to morphological problems’ on May 23, 2018. I'm especially indebted to Su Urbanczyk, John Alderete, Doug Pulleyblank, and Henry Thomas for helpful discussions.

  1. Research funding: This research was generously supported by a DFG research grant to the project ‘Multiple Reduplication: Typology and Theory’ (ZI 1717/1-1).

Appendix: Languages with MR

1. Tigre FMR IR P Afro-Asiatic Semitic
Rose (2003)
2. Arapaho FMR CR P Algic Algonquian
Cowell and Moss (2008)
3. Fox FMR CR P Algic Algonquian
Dahlstrom (1997)
4. Plains Cree FMR CR P Algic Algonquian
Ahenakew and Wolfart (1983)
5. Fungwa FMR IR P Atlantic-Congo Volta-Congo
Akinbo (2018, 2019)
6. Siraya FMR CR P Austronesian East Formosan
Adelaar (2000)
7. Bikol FMR CR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Donner (2012)
8. Helong FMR CR, IR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Balle (2017)
9. Javanese FMR CR F Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Miyake (2011), Noske et al. (1982)
10. Mokilese FMR SR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Harrison (1974)
11. Palauan FMR CR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Finer (1990), Zuraw (2003)
12. Papapana FMR CR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Smith (2016)
13. Pingelapese FMR IR F Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
(Hattori 2012; Rehg 1981)
14. Rotuman FMR IR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Blenkiron (2007)
15. Sikaiana SMR CR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Donner (2012)
16. Tagalog FMR CR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Blake (1917)
17. Toqabaqita AMR IR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Lichtenberk (2008)
18. Tuvaluan FMR CR F Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Besnier (2000)
19. Vaeakau-Tamako FMR IR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Næss and Hovdhaugen (2011)
20. Yami FMR CR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Rau (2005)
21. Southern Paiwan FMR CR P Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian
Blust (2013)
22. Thao FMR IR P Austronesian Western Plains
Blust (2001)
23. Klamath FMR CR F Klamath-Modoc
Barker (1964), Zoll (2002)
24. Lushootseed SMR CR P Salishan Central Salish
Urbanczyk (2001)
25. Mainland Comox FMR CR P Salishan Central Salish
Blake (2000), Watanabe (1994)
26. Musqueam FMR CR P Salishan Central Salish
Suttles (2004)
27. Saanich FMR CR P Salishan Central Salish
Montler (1986)
28. Upriver Halkomelem FMR CR P Salishan Central Salish
Galloway (1993)
29. Colville FMR CR P Salishan Interior Salish
Mattina (1973)
30. Lillooet FMR CR P Salishan Interior Salish
van Eijk (1997)
31. Shuswap FMR CR P Salishan Interior Salish
Broselow (1983), Kuipers (1974)
32. Spokane FMR CR P Salishan Interior Salish
Carlsen (1989)
33. Thompson FMR CR P Salishan Interior Salish
Thompson and Thompson (1992)
34. Stau FMR SR P Sino-Tibetan Burmo-Qiangic
Gates (2017)
35. Taiwanese FMR SR F Sino-Tibetan Sinitic
Zhang and Lai (2007)
36. Ahousaht AMR CR P Wakashan S. Wakashan
Kim (2003b)
37. Ditidaht AMR CR P Wakashan S. Wakashan
Stonham (1994)
38. Kyuoquot AMR CR P Wakashan S. Wakashan
Rose (1981)
39. Makah AMR CR P Wakashan S. Wakashan
Davidson (2002)
40. Tsishaath AMR CR P Wakashan S. Wakashan
Stonham (2004)

  1. CR = concatenative MR/IT = iterative MR/S = MR where one reduplicative morpheme does not occur on its own (cf. Section 2). P = only partial reduplication is involved in MR/F = at least one reduplicative morpheme in MR contexts involves full reduplication. FMR = Faithful MR/AMR = unfaithful MR with Avoidance/SMR = unfaithful MR with subtraction.

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