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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 17, 2021

Cloud Point Extraction of Direct Blue 71 Dye using Triton X-100 as Nonionic Surfactant

Trübungspunktextraktion des Farbstoffs Direktblau 71 unter Verwendung von Triton X-100 als nichtionisches Tensid
  • Moussa Alibrahim

    Dr. Moussa Alibrahim is a Research Director at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Chemistry, his Ph.D specialist in the field of Chemistry and molecular physical chemistry (France-Nancy I University, 1988). His thesis was involved on the [SYSTEMES A BASE DE TENSIOACTIFS NONIONIQUES: INFLUENCE DE COTENSIOACTIFS IONIQUES ET STRUCTURE DES PHASES MESOMORPHES]. His research interests for the time being are focused on the Physical Chemistry of Surfactants, Solvent Extraction and Liquid Crystal. E-mail address:

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A surfactant-mediated cloud point extraction (CPE) method using the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) has been developed to remove the dye Direct Blue 71 (DB71) from a waste water. Most of the dye molecules are solubilized in the coacervate phase so that the dilute phase remains free of the dye. The effects of surfactant concentration, temperature and salt concentration on the different dye concentrations were studied to determine the optimal conditions for removing DB71. The concentration of DB71 in the dilute phase was measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the separation of phases was complete and the recovery of DB71 was very effective in the presence of NaCl as an electrolyte. The results showed that up to 25 ppm DB71, i.e. more than 95%, can be quantitatively removed by cloud point extraction procedures in a single extraction at optimal conditions. It was also observed that at a dye concentration of 1 ppm, 100% of the blue dye DB71 can be directly removed with a TX-100 concentration of 12% by weight. At higher dye concentrations of up to 30 ppm, 94.7%-100% dye can be removed. The TX-100 concentration was 12 wt%, the salt concentration (NaCl) 0.005 M and the temperature 75°C. It is concluded that the surfactant mediated cloud point extraction method for dye removal can be an alternative to current dye removal methods.


Es wurde eine tensidvermittelte Trübungspunktextraktions-Methode (CPE) mit dem nichtionischen Tensid Triton X-100 (TX-100) entwickelt, um den Farbstoff Direct Blue 71 (DB71) aus einem Abwasser zu entfernen. Die meisten Farbstoffmoleküle werden in der Koazervatphase löslich gemacht, so dass die verdünnte Phase frei vom Farbstoff bleibt. Die Auswirkungen der Tensidkonzentration, der Temperatur und der Salzkonzentration auf die verschiedenen Farbstoffkonzentrationen wurden untersucht, um die optimalen Bedingungen für die Entfernung von DB71 zu ermitteln. Die Konzentration von DB71 in der verdünnten Phase wurde mit einem UV-Vis-Spektrophotometer gemessen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass die Phasentrennung abgeschlossen und die Rückgewinnung von DB71 in Gegenwart von NaCl als Elektrolyt sehr effektiv war. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass bis zu 25 ppm DB71, d. h. mehr als 95%, quantitativ durch Trübungspunktextraktions-Verfahren in einer einzigen Extraktion unter optimalen Bedingungen entfernt werden können. Außerdem wurde beobachtet, dass bei einer Farbstoffkonzentration von 1 ppm eine direkte Entfernung von 100% des blauen Farbstoffs DB71 mit einer TX-100-Konzentration von 12 Gew.-% möglich ist. Bei höheren Farbstoffkonzentrationen von bis zu 30 ppm können 94,7%–100% Farbstoff entfernt werden. Die TX-100-Konzentration betrug 12 Gew.-%, die Salzkonzentration (NaCl) 0,005 M und die Temperatur 75°C. Es wird der Schluss gezogen, dass die tensidvermittelte Trübungspunktextraktions-Methode für die Farbstoffentfernung eine Alternative zu den gegenwärtigen Farbstoffentfernungsverfahren sein kann.

Dr. Moussa Alibrahim Atomic Energy Commission Department of Chemistry P.O. Box 6091 Damascus Syria

About the author

Dr. Moussa Alibrahim

Dr. Moussa Alibrahim is a Research Director at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Chemistry, his Ph.D specialist in the field of Chemistry and molecular physical chemistry (France-Nancy I University, 1988). His thesis was involved on the [SYSTEMES A BASE DE TENSIOACTIFS NONIONIQUES: INFLUENCE DE COTENSIOACTIFS IONIQUES ET STRUCTURE DES PHASES MESOMORPHES]. His research interests for the time being are focused on the Physical Chemistry of Surfactants, Solvent Extraction and Liquid Crystal. E-mail address:


The author would like to express his grateful to the General Director of Syrian Atomic Energy Commission Prof. I. Othman and the head of Chemistry Department Dr. Z. Ajji for their encouragement to carry out this work. Thanks is extended to Prof. A. W. Allaf for valuable discussion and English corrections.


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Received: 2018-07-24
Accepted: 2018-08-30
Published Online: 2021-02-17
Published in Print: 2021-01-27

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany

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