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The Effect of Halide Counter Ions and Methanol on the Foaming Behavior of Cationic Surfactants and a Mechanism Study

Der Einfluss von Halogenid-Gegenionen und Methanol auf das Schaumvermögen von kationischen Tensiden und eine Mechanismusstudie
Yun Bai, Jie Zhang, Sanbao Dong, Shidong Zhu, Manxue Wang, Ya Wu, Chunsheng Pu and Gang Chen


In this work, four quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants including cetyltrimethyl ammonium fluoride (CTAF), cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium iodide (CTAI) were investigated to study the effect of halide anions on the surface activity and foaming performance. The result showed that CTAF had superior surface activity, which could reduce the surface tension of water to 33.15 mN/m at a low CMC (critical micelle formation concentration) of 1.65 mmol/L. Based on the calculation of Amin (the minimum occupied area per surfactant molecule), we assumed that this higher surface activity was related to the small ionic radius of the fluorine ion (F). The foamability and foam stability of CTAF has great advantages over other surfactants studied. On this basis, the factors affecting the formation and stabilization of the CTAF foam were investigated. The results showed that foam formation benefited from high temperatures and low methanol concentration, while high salinity was beneficial for foam stability. When CTAF at a concentration of 0.2% was used as a foaming agent, foaming was excellent at a methanol concentration of 10%, a salinity of 22 ⨯ 104 mg/L, and a temperature of 90°C. With this study, uncertainties that existed in the literature regarding the effect of anion on surface activity and foam performance were explained and the effect of temperature, methanol and salinity on foam generation and stabilization was understood.


In dieser Arbeit wurden die vier kationischen quaternären Ammonium-Tenside Cetyltrimethylammoniumfluorid (CTAF), Cetyltrimethylammoniumchlorid (CTAC), Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromid (CTAB) und Cetyltrimethylammoniumiodid (CTAI) verwendet, um den Einfluss von Anionen (Halogenidionen) auf die Oberflächenaktivität und das Schaumverhalten zu untersuchen. Das Ergebnis zeigte, dass CTAF eine überlegene Oberflächenaktivität hatte, die die Oberflächenspannung von Wasser bis auf 33,15 mN/m bei einer niedrigen CMC (kritische Mizellenbildungskonzentration) von 1,65 mmol/L reduzieren konnte. Aufgrund der Berechnung von Amin (die minimal besetzte Fläche pro Tensidmolekül) vermuteten wir, dass diese höhere Oberflächenaktivität mit dem kleinen Ionenradius des Fluoridions (F) zusammenhing. Die Schaumfähigkeit und Schaumstabilität von CTAF hat große Vorteile gegenüber den anderen untersuchten Tensiden. Auf dieser Grundlage wurden die Faktoren untersucht, die die Bildung und Stabilisierung des CTAF-Schaums beeinflussen. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass die Schaumbildung von hohen Temperaturen und geringen Methanolkonzentration profitierte, während für die Schaumstabilität eine hohe Salinität von Vorteil war. Wenn CTAF in einer Konzentration von 0,2% als Schaumbildner verwendet wurde, war die Schaumbildung bei einer Methanolkonzentration von 10%, einem Salzgehalt von 22 ⨯ 104 mg/L und einer Temperatur von 90°C besonders gut. Mit dieser Studie konnten Unklarheiten, die in der Literatur in Bezug auf die Wirkung des Anions auf die Oberflächenaktivität und die Schaumleistung exisitierten, erklärt und die Wirkung von Temperatur, Methanol und Salzgehalt auf die Erzeugung und Stabilisierung von Schaum verstanden werden.

Prof. Dr. Gang Chen Shaanxi Province Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Reservoir Protection Technology of Oilfields Xi’an Shiyou University Xi’an, 710065 China State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Pollution Control CNPC Research Institute of Safety and Environmental Technology Beijing, 102206 China
Dr. Chunsheng Pu School of Petroleum Engineering Petroleum University of China (Huadong) Qingdao, 266580 China


This work was financially supported by the grants from National Science Foundation of China (41202214, 51774184), Shaanxi Key Research and Development Program (2019 KW-061), and Open Foundation of Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Lacustrine Shale Gas Accumulation and Exploitation (Under planning). And we thank the support of The Youth Innovation Team of Shaanxi Universities and Modern Analysis and Testing Center of Xi’an Shiyou University.


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Received: 2020-02-07
Accepted: 2020-06-08
Published Online: 2021-07-29
Published in Print: 2021-07-31

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