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Synthesis and Aggregation of Novel Sugar-based Gemini Surfactants in Aqueous Solution

Synthese und Aggregation von neuartigen zuckerbasierten Gemini-Tensiden in wässriger Lösung
Ruijuan Wang, Yu Lei, Zikun Mei, Dong Wang and Zhigang Yin


Novel sugar-based gemini surfactants with a 1,3-propan-2-ol spacer (1, 3-(N- alkyl-2-D-glucosaminyl acetyl) propan-2-ol, Glu(n)-3(OH)-Glu(n), n = 12, 14) were synthesized with D-(+)-glucono-1,5-lactone as starting material in two steps, whose structures were confirmed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance carbon spectroscopy (13C NMR). The micellization of Glu(n)-3(OH)-Glu(n) (n = 12, 14) in aqueous solution at 25.0°C was investigated by using surface tension measurement. The results show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) is around 10–5 mol × L–1, and is one order of magnitude smaller than that of Glu(14)-3(OH)-Glu(14), indicating that the surface activity of Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) is superior to that of Glu(14)-3(OH)-Glu(14). Moreover, the aggregation behavior of Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) in aqueous solution at different pH values was investigated by surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopic (Cryo-TEM) measurements. The results indicate that the CMC slightly increases with the decrease of the solution pH. The microstructure of Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) aggregates transitions from micelle to vesicle with the solution pH from acidic to neutral and alkaline. The microstructural transformation of Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) with the solution pH is mainly determined by the protonation of the two tertiary amine nitrogen atoms in its hydrophilic headgroups.


Es wurden die folgenden neuartigen Geminitenside auf Zuckerbasis mit einem 1,3-Propan-2-ol-Spacer mit D-(+)-Glucono-1,5-Lacton als Ausgangsmaterial in zwei Schritten synthetisiert: (1,3-(N-alkyl-2-D-glucosaminylacetyl)-propan-2-ol, Glu(n)-3(OH)-Glu(n), n = 12, 14). Ihre Strukturen wurden mittels Protonen-Kernspinresonanzspektroskopie (1H-NMR) und Kohlenstoff-13-Kernspinresonanz-Kohlenstoffspektroskropie (13C-NMR) bestätigt. Die Mizellenbildung von Glu(n)-3(OH)-Glu(n) (n = 12, 14) in wässriger Lösung wurde bei 25 °C mit Hilfe der Oberflächenspannungsmessung untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die kritische Mizellenkonzentration (CMC) von Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) etwa 10–5 mol L–1 beträgt und eine Größenordnung kleiner ist als die von Glu(14)-3(OH)-Glu(14), was darauf hinweist, dass die Oberflächenaktivität von Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) der von Glu(14)-3(OH)-Glu(14) überlegen ist. Darüber hinaus wurde das Aggregationsverhalten von Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) in wässriger Lösung bei verschiedenen pH-Werten durch Messungen der Oberflächenspannung, der dynamischen Lichtstreuung (DLS) und der kryogenen Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie (Cryo-TEM) bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die CMC mit der Abnahme des pH-Wertes der Lösung leicht ansteigt. Die Mikrostruktur der Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12)-Aggregate geht mit dem Lösungs-pH von sauer zu neutral und alkalisch von Mizelle zu Vesikel über. Die mikrostrukturelle Transformation von Glu(12)-3(OH)-Glu(12) mit dem Lösungs-pH wird hauptsächlich durch die Protonierung der beiden tertiären Amin-Stickstoffatome in seinen hydrophilen Kopfgruppen bestimmt.

Dr. Ruijuan Wang School of Material and Chemical Engineering
Dr. Zhigang Yin Henan Engineering Research Center of Catalysis and Seperation of Cyclohexanol Zhengzhou University of Light Industry Zhengzhou, Henan 450002 P.R.China


This work was supported by the Foundation of Henan Educational Committee (19B150019), Foundation of Henan Department of Science and Technology (CLY20170165) and the Doctoral Research Fund of Zhengzhou University of Light Industry (2014BSJJ063).


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Received: 2020-06-12
Accepted: 2021-01-21
Published Online: 2021-09-25
Published in Print: 2021-09-30

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