Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 25, 2021

Performance Evaluation of the Percarbonate and Perborate Bleach Activators Synthesized by a Low-Cost, Two-Step Method from Phenol

Leistungsbewertung von Percarbonat- und Perborat-Bleichaktivatoren, die durch eine kostengünstige, zweistufige Methode aus Phenol synthetisiert wurden
Omid Shojaei


Bleach activators decrease the energy consumption and fabrics damage in the process of laundry and industrial cotton bleaching. Herein, we demonstrate a low-cost, two-step method for the synthesis of sodium nonanoyloxybenzene sulfonate and sodium lauroyloxybenzene sulfonate from phenol as a simple precursor material for efficient bleach activators. Initially, phenol was sulfonated to sodium p-phenolsulfonate. In the second step, it was acylated with nonanoyl chloride and dodecanoyl chloride to synthesize sodium nonanoyloxybenzene sulfonate and sodium lauroyloxybenzene sulfonate, respectively. Sodium p-phenolsulfonate and the obtained bleach activators were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, IR-, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The investigation of their detergency efficiency on different stains and substrates revealed that the as-synthesized bleach activators outperform the commercial tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) at room temperature (25°C). The detergency efficiency of sodium lauroyloxybenzene sulfonate for hydrophobic stains at a rather low temperature of 40°C remarkably rises to about 90%.


Bleichaktivatoren verringern den Energieverbrauch und die Gewebeschädigung beim Waschen und bei der industriellen Baumwollbleiche. Hierin wird eine kostengünstige, zweistufige Methode zur Synthese von Natrium-Nonanoyloxybenzensulfonat und Natrium-Lauroyloxybenzensulfonat aus Phenol als einfaches Ausgangsmaterial für effiziente Bleichaktivatoren entwickelt. Zunächst wurde Phenol zu Natrium-p-phenolsulfonat sulfoniert. Im zweiten Schritt wurde es mit Nonanoylchlorid und Dodecanoylchlorid acyliert, um Natrium-Nonanoyloxybenzensulfonat bzw. Natrium-Lauroyloxybenzensulfonat zu erhalten. Natrium-p-phenolsulfonat und die erhaltenen Bleichaktivatoren wurden durch thermogravimetrische Analyse, IR- und 1H NMR-Spektroskopie charakterisiert. Die Untersuchung ihrer Reinigungswirkung auf verschiedenen Flecken und Substraten ergab, dass die so synthetisierten Bleichaktivatoren das kommerzielle Tetraacetylethylendiamin (TAED) bei Raumtemperatur (25°C) übertreffen. Die Waschkraft von Natriumlauroyloxybenzensulfonat für hydrophobe Flecken erhöht sich bei einer eher niedrigen Temperatur von 40°C bemerkenswerter auf ca. 90%.

  1. Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


I would like to thank Behdash Chemical Co. for providing access to their facilities during the research and the University of Tehran for supporting the work. Furthermore, I would like to thank Prof. Abdoljalil Mostashari and Prof. Mehdi Ghandi for their helpful comments during working on the project.


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Received: 2020-12-14
Accepted: 2021-05-22
Published Online: 2021-09-25
Published in Print: 2021-09-30

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