Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 25, 2021

Evaluation of the Quality of Bath Cosmetics in Powder Form Depending on the Selection of Fillers

Bewertung der Qualität von pulverförmigen Badekosmetika in Abhängigkeit von der Auswahl der Füllstoffe
Ilona Podkowa-Zawadzka, Tomasz Wasilewski and Małgorzata Zięba


The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic microcrystalline cellulose, hydrophobic talc and mixtures of cellulose and talc when used as fillers in powdered bath cosmetics. A number of model formulations were developed that contained fillers in different compositions. Prototypical formulations were prepared and evaluated for their functional properties and skin-drying effect. An increase in the concentration of talc was found to reduce the ability of the formulations to emulsify fatty soils and, consequently, decrease the skin-drying effect after washing. Another result of the study is that a high content of talc does not significantly impair the foaming ability, and the presence of talc improves the stability of generated foam.


Ziel der Studie war, die Auswirkungen von hydrophiler mikrokristalliner Cellulose, hydrophobem Talkum und Mischungen aus Cellulose und Talkum beim Einsatz in pulverförmigen Badekosmetika als Füllstoffe zu bewerten. Es wurde eine Reihe von Modellformulierungen entwickelt, welche die Füllstoffe in unterschiedlicher Zusammensetzung enthielten. Prototypformulierungen wurden hergestellt und deren funktionelle Eigenschaften und hautaustrocknende Wirkung untersucht. Es zeigte sich, dass bei Erhöhung der Talkumkonzentration die Fähigkeit der Formulierungen, fetthaltige Verschmutzungen zu emulgieren, reduziert war und somit die hautaustrocknende Wirkung nach dem Waschen abnahm. Außerdem zeigt die Studie, dass ein hoher Talkumgehalt die Schaumbildung nicht signifikant beeinträchtigt und dass die Stabilität des erzeugten Schaums durch die Anwesenheit des Talkums verbessert wird.

Department of Industrial Chemistry Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Commodity Science University of Technology and Humanties in Radom Poland


The study was conducted under Project no. 3086/182/P \Development of formulations and technologies for the manufacture of innovative cosmetics, pharmacy supplies, household and industrial chemicals" funded with the assistance of the Ministry of Education and Science from subsidies for statutory activity.


1 Bom, S., Jorge, J., Ribeiro, H. M. and Marto, J.: A Step Forward on Sustainability in the Cosmetics Industry: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 225, 2019, 270–290. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.255 Search in Google Scholar

2 Seweryn A. and Bujak T.: Application of anionic phosphorus derivatives of alkyl polyglucosides for the production of sustainable and mild body wash cosmetics, ACS Sustainable Chem.Eng. 2018, 6, 12, 17294–17301. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b04711 Search in Google Scholar

3 Seweryn, A.: Interactions between surfactants and the skin–theory and practice, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 256 (2018) 242–55. PMid:29685575; DOI:10.1016/j.cis.2018.04.002 Search in Google Scholar

4 Ananthapadmanabhan K. P., Moore D. J., Subramanyan, K., Misra, M. and Meyer, F.: Cleansing without compromise: the impact of cleansers on the skin barrier and the technology of mild cleansing. “Dermatologic Therapy", 17 (2004) 16–25. PMid:14728695; DOI:10.1111/j.1396-0296.2004.04S Search in Google Scholar

5 Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P., Mukherjee, S. and Chandar, P.: Stratum corneum fatty acids: their critical role in preserving barier integrity during cleansing. Int J Cosmet Sci. 35(4) (2013) 337-345. PMid:23363400; DOI:10.1111/ics.12042 Search in Google Scholar

6 Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Z. and Bujak, T.: Saponins as natural raw materials for increasing the safety of body wash cosmetic use, Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, 21(6) (2018) 767–776. DOI:10.1002/jsde.12168 Search in Google Scholar

7 Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Z., Osika, P., Wasilewski, T. and Bujak, T.: Hydrophilic dogwood extracts as materials for reducing the skin irritation potential of body wash cosmetics, Molecules, 22(2) (2017) 320–335. PMid:28218732; DOI:10.3390/molecules22020320 Search in Google Scholar

8 Halla, N., Fernandes, I., Heleno, S., Costa, P., Boucherit-Otmani, Z., Boucherit, K. and Barreiro, M.: Cosmetics Preservation: A Review on Present Strategies. Molecules, 23(7) (2018) 1571. PMid:29958439; DOI:10.3390/molecules23071571 Search in Google Scholar

9 Ocieczek, A. and Zięba, M.: Comparison of the Sorption Properties of Fruit Powder Shampoos Using the BET, GAB, and Peleg Models, ACS Omega, 24(5) (2020) 14354–14359. PMid:32596572; DOI:10.1021/acsomega.0γ00851 Search in Google Scholar

10 Lukic, M., Pantelic, I. and Savic, S.: An Overview of Novel Surfactants for Formulation of Cosmetics with Certain Emphasis on Acidic Active Substances, Tenside Surf. Det. 53(1) (2016) 7–19. DOI:10.3139/113.110405 Search in Google Scholar

11 Ananthapadmanabhan K. P.: Amino-Acid Surfactants in Personal Cleansing (Review), Tenside Surf. Det. 56(5) (2019) 378–386. DOI:10.3139/113.110641 Search in Google Scholar

12 Bockmühl, D.: Biosurfactants as antimicrobial ingredients for cleaning products and cosmetics. Tenside Surfactants Deterg 49(3) (2012) 196–198. DOI:10,3139/113,110182 Search in Google Scholar

13 Varvaresou, A. and Iakovou, K.: Biosurfactants in cosmetic and biopharmaceutical. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. in press (2015), 214–223. PMid:25970073; DOI:10.1111/lam.12440 Search in Google Scholar

14 Secchi, G.: (2008). Role of protein in cosmetics. Clinics in Dermatology, 26(4), 321–325. PMid:18691510; DOI:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2008.04.004 Search in Google Scholar

15 Klimaszewska, E., Bocho-Janiszewska, A., Ogorzałek, M., Bujak, T., Szmuc, E. and Podkowa, I.: Application of sweet almond protein hydrolysates in glucosides-based shampoos, Pol J Cosmetol 20(2) (2017) 146–152. Search in Google Scholar

16 Bujak, T., Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Z. and Wasilewski, T.: Effect of molecular weight of polymers on the properties of delicate facial foams, Tenside Surfactants Detergents, 55(2) (2018) 96–102. DOI:10.3139/113.110547 Search in Google Scholar

17 Wasilewski, T., Czerwonka, D., Piotrowska, U., Seweryn, A., Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Z. and Sobczak, M.: Use of hop cone extract obtained under supercritical CO2 conditions for producing antibacterial all-purpose cleaners. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, 11(4), (2018) 419–428. DOI:10.1080/17518253.2018.1526975 Search in Google Scholar

18 Wasilewski, T., Seweryn, A. and Bujak, T.: (2016). Supercritical carbon dioxide blackcurrant seed extract as an anti-irritant additive for hand dishwashing liquids. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, 9(2) (2016) 114–121. DOI:10.1080/17518253.2016.1180432 Search in Google Scholar

19 Wasilewski, T., Seweryn, A. and Krajewski, M.: Improvement in the safety of use of hand dishwashing liquids through the addition of hydrophobic plant extracts. J. Surfactants Deterg.19(6) (2016) 1316–1326. PMid:27795665; DOI:10.1007/s11743-016-1868-x Search in Google Scholar

20 Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P., Yang, L., Vincent, C., Tsaur, L., Vetro, K., Foy, V., Zhang, S., Ashkenazi, A., Pashkovski, E. and Subramanian, V.: A novel technology in mild and moisturizing cleansing liquids, Quadrant 22(6) (2009) 307–316. Search in Google Scholar

21 Ren, J., Wang, W., Lu, S., Shen, J. and Tang, F.: Characteristics of dispersion behavior of fine particles in different liquid media. Powder Technology, 137(1–2) (2003) 91–94. DOI:10.1016/j.powtec.2003.08.057 Search in Google Scholar

22 Mukherjee, S., Yang, L., Vincent, C., Lei, X., Ottaviani, M. F. and Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.: A comparison between interactions of triglyceride oil and mineral oil with proteins and their ability to reduce cleanser surfactant-induced irritation. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 37(4) (2015) 371–378. PMid:25656133; DOI:10.1111/ics.12205 Search in Google Scholar

23 Sikora, E., Michorczyk, P., Olszańska, M. and Ogonowski, J.: Supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds as a valuable component of mild cleansing compositions. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 37(6) (2015) 574–578. PMid:25899676; DOI:10.1111/ics.12234 Search in Google Scholar

24 Wasilewski, T., Arct, J., Pytkowska, K., Bocho-Janiszewska, A., Krajewski, M. and Bujak, T.: Technologiczne i fizykochemiczne aspekty wytwarzania koncentratów kosmetyków myjących, Przemysł chemiczny 5 (2015) 741–747. DOI:10.15199/62.2015.5.16 Search in Google Scholar

25 Zazenski, R., Ashton, W. H., Briggs, D., Chudkowski, M., Kelse, J. W., Maceachern, L. and Gettings, S. D.: Talc: Occurrence, Characterization, and Consumer Applications. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 21(2 (1995) 218–229. PMid:7644709; DOI:10.1006/rtph.1995.103 Search in Google Scholar

26 Schmit, C., Dalton, J., Rosenberg, C. and Myers, G.: Personal cleansing bar with increased talc levels, US Patent US 2007/0042920 A1, Feb. 22, 2007. Search in Google Scholar

27 Gawade, R. P., Chinke, S. P., Prashant, S. and Alegaonkar, P. S.: Polymers in cosmetics, Polymer Science and Innovative Applications,1st Edition, 2020, pp 545–560. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-816808-0.00017-2 Search in Google Scholar

28 Thoorens, G., Krier, F., Leclercq, B., Carlin, B. and Evrard, B.: Microcrystalline cellulose, a direct compression binder in a quality by design environment–A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 473(1–2) (2014) 64–72. PMid:24993785; DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.06.055 Search in Google Scholar

29 Wasilewski, T.: Coacervates as a modern delivery system of hand dishwashing liquids. J Surfact Deterg 13(4) (2010), 513–520. DOI:10.1007/s11743-010-1189-4 Search in Google Scholar

30 Darlenski, R., Sassning, S., Tsankov, N. and Fluhr, J. W.: Non-invasive in vivo methods for investigation of the skin barrier physical properties. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 72(2) (2009) 295–303. PMid:19118626; DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.11.013 Search in Google Scholar

31 Carretero, M. I. and Pozo, M.: Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries Part II. Active ingredients. Appl. Clay Sci., 2010, 47, 171–181.. DOI:10.1016/j.Glina.2009.10.016 Search in Google Scholar

32 Horozov, T.: (2008). Foams and foam films stabilised by solid particles. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 13(3), 2008 134–140. DOI:10.1016/j.cocis.2007.11.009 Search in Google Scholar

33 Kruglyakov, P. M., Elaneva, S. I. and Vilkova, N. G.: About mechanism of foam stabilization by solid particles, Advances in Colloid and Interface Sci. 165 (2011)108–118. PMid:21382608; DOI:10.1016/j.cis.2011.02.003 Search in Google Scholar

34 Mukherjee, S., Edmunds, M., Lei, X., Ottaviani, M. F., Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P. and Turro, N. J.: Stearic acid delivery to corneum from a mild and moisturizing cleanser. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2010, 9(3), 202–210. PMid:20883293; DOI:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2010.00510.x Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-03-10
Accepted: 2021-04-28
Published Online: 2021-09-25
Published in Print: 2021-09-30

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany