Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published online by De Gruyter May 18, 2022

Effect of water contaminated with hand washing liquid on germination characteristics of wheat, flax, and lentil

Hassan Heidari and Zahra Parhoon


Due to climate change and declining water resources, some farmers are turning to wastewater. One of water pollutants is household detergent. To examine this, a study was conducted to determine the effect of water contaminated with hand washing liquid on the germination characteristics of wheat, flax, and lentil in a completely randomized design with three replications in 2020. Experimental treatments included water contaminated with different concentrations of hand washing liquid ((0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10)%) of hand washing liquid in water). The results showed that with increasing concentration of the contaminant in the water, the germination percentage, the caulicle length, and the radicle length of wheat, flax and lentil decreased. It was observed that wheat had a higher resistance to hand washing liquid than lentil and flax so that at a concentration of 0.01% and 0.1%, the wheat radicle was still growing. It is recommended to avoid irrigating plants with contaminated water with high amounts of hand washing liquid.

Corresponding author: Dr. Hassan Heidari, Department of Plant Production and Genetics Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran, E-mail:


1. Hunter, M. C., Kemanian, A. R., Mortensen, D. A. Cover crop effects on maize drought stress and yield. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2021, 311, 107294; in Google Scholar

2. Jangir, P., Shekhawat, P. K., Bishnoi, A., Ram, H., Soni, P. Role of Serendipita indica in enhancing drought tolerance in crops. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 2021, 116, 101691; in Google Scholar

3. Thanmalagan, R. R., Jayaprakash, A., Roy, A., Arunachalam, A., Lakshmi, P. T. V. A review on applications of plant network biology to understand the drought stress response in economically important cereal crops. Plant Gene 2022, 29, 100345; in Google Scholar

4. Gloaguen, R. M., Rowland, D. L., Brym, Z. T., Wilson, C. H., Chun, H. C., Langham, R. A method for developing irrigation decision support systems de novo: example of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) a known drought tolerant species. Agric. Water Manag. 2021, 243, 106435; in Google Scholar

5. Leonel, L. P., Tonetti, A. L. Wastewater reuse for crop irrigation: crop yield, soil and human health implications based on giardiasis epidemiology. Sci. Total Environ. 2021, 775, 145833; in Google Scholar

6. Bilen, S. Effects of Laundry Detergent Residues on Some Biochemical Properties of the Farming Soil and Seeds Germination Rates; ASA/CSSA/SSSA, 2016. Meeting, Nov. 6-9 (2016), Phoenix, AZ.Search in Google Scholar

7. Fatoba, P. O., Olorunmaiye, K. S., Adepoju, A. O. Effects of soaps and detergents wastes on seed germination, flowering and fruiting of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plants. Ecol. Environ. Conserv. 2011, 17, 7–11.Search in Google Scholar

8. Nana, R., Maïga, Y., Ouédraogo, R. F., Kaboré, W. G. B., Badiel, B., Tamini, Z. Effect of water quality on the germination of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds. Int. J. Agron. 2019, 2019, 1–7; in Google Scholar

9. Mosse, K. P. M., Patti, A. F., Christen, E. W., Cavagnaro, T. R. Winery wastewater inhibits seed germination and vegetative growth of common crop species. J. Hazard Mater. 2010, 180, 63–70; in Google Scholar PubMed

10. Cavallaro, V., Maucieri, C., Barbera, A. C. Lolium multiflorum Lam. cvs germination under simulated olive mill wastewater salinity and pH stress. Ecol. Eng. 2014, 71, 113–117; in Google Scholar

11. D’Annibale, A., Casa, R., Pieruccetti, F., Ricci, M., Marabottini, R. Lentinula edodes removes phenols from olive-mill wastewater: impact on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) germinability. Chemosphere 2004, 54, 887–894; in Google Scholar PubMed

12. Kanyatrakul, A., Prakhongsak, A., Honda, R., Phanwilai, S., Treesubsuntorn, C., Boonnorat, J. Effect of leachate effluent from activated sludge and membrane bioreactor systems with acclimatized sludge on plant seed germination. Sci. Total Environ. 2020, 724, 138275; in Google Scholar PubMed

13. Erhenhi, A. H. Effects of detergents and local soap “SODA” on germination of the seeds of monocots and dicots. Niger. J. Sci. Environ. 2011, 10, 219–224.Search in Google Scholar

14. Erhenhi, A. H. Effects of detergents and local soap on Cajanus cajan. Niger. J. Sci. Environ. 2011, 10, 225–232.Search in Google Scholar

15. Heidari, H. Yield, yield components and seed germination of maize (Zea mays L.) at different defoliation and tassel removal treatments, Philipp. Agric. Sci. 2013, 96, 42–47.Search in Google Scholar

16. Khatoon, K., Malik, A. Cyto-genotoxic potential of petroleum refinery wastewater mixed with domestic sewage used for irrigation of food crops in the vicinity of an oil refinery. Heliyon 2021, 7, e08116; in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

17. Thebetterindia. 8 Harmful Chemicals in Your Laundry Detergent that You Should Avoid, 2020. (accessed 5 2, 2022).Search in Google Scholar

18. Anonymous Detergents. Toxics Link Factsheet 2002, 16, 1–6. in Google Scholar

19. Moles, T. M., Guglielminetti, L., Huarancca Reyes, T. Differential effects of sodium chloride on germination and post-germination stages of two tomato genotypes. Sci. Hortic. 2019, 257, 108730; in Google Scholar

20. Hooks, T. N., Picchioni, G. A., Schutte, B. J., Shukla, M. K., Daniel, D. L. Sodium chloride effects on seed germination, growth, and water use of Lepidium alyssoides, L. draba, and L. latifolium: traits of resistance and implications for invasiveness on saline soils. Rangel. Ecol. Manag. 2018, 71, 433–442; in Google Scholar

21. Al-Taisan, W. A. A., Al-Qarawi, A. A., Alsubiee, M. S. Effect of water stress by polyethylene glycol 8000 and sodium chloride on germination of Ephedra alata decne seeds. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2010, 17, 253–257; in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

22. Heidari, H. Effect of irrigation by contaminated water with cloth detergent on plant growth and seed germination traits of maize (Zea mays). Life Sci. J. 2012, 9, 1587–1590.Search in Google Scholar

23. Saeed, R., Mirbahar, A. A., Jahan, B., Zehra, A. Effect of greywater (soap water) irrigation on growth and root nodules of medicinal plant (Sesbania grandiflora) L. Fuuast J. Biol. 2015, 5, 115–121.Search in Google Scholar

24. Uzma, S., Khan, S., Murad, W., Taimur, N., Azizullah, A. Phytotoxic effects of two commonly used laundry detergents on germination, growth, and biochemical characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2018, 190, 651; in Google Scholar PubMed

25. Yang, X., Cai, J., Chen, L., Cao, X., Liu, H., Liu, M. Green detergent made of halloysite nanotubes. Chem. Eng. J. 2021, 425, 130623; in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-12-01
Revised: 2022-02-07
Accepted: 2022-03-07
Published Online: 2022-05-18

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston