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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 19, 2022

Extracted saponin from Anabasis setifera plant as a biosurfactant for stabilization of oil in water (O/W) nano-emulsion based on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) kernel oil

Fatemeh Rigi


Saponin was extracted from the Anabasis setifera plant and used to stabilize an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion based on date palm kernel oil. Different amounts of the extracted saponin were used with a constant oil concentration (1.5% w/w). The droplet size distribution, emulsion droplet size value (d-ave), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential of the emulsions were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS). These parameters were measured and compared after seven days of emulsion preparation. The best results (d-ave = 41.7 nm, PDI = 0.1 and zeta potential = −29.8 mV) were obtained for the CMC of saponin. Both the oil and the surfactant were specifically extracted and used from the nature of Saravan in the Baluchestan region of Iran. This research presents a green and cost-effective aspect for potential formulations of nano-emulsions that can be used in the food and cosmetic industries.

Corresponding author: Fatemeh Rigi, Department of Production and Utilization of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Higher Education Complex of Saravan, Saravan, Iran, E-mail:

Funding source: Research Management of Higher Education Complex of Saravan

Award Identifier / Grant number: 2856

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: This work was supported by the Higher Education Complex of Saravan with project number 2856.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Received: 2021-12-20
Accepted: 2022-02-15
Published Online: 2022-05-19
Published in Print: 2022-07-26

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