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Plattformgenossenschaften: Perzeption und Diskurs im Kontext der Plattformökonomie - Einordnung anhand einer systematischen Literaturrecherche

Platform cooperatives: Perception and discourse in the context of the platform economy - classification based on a systematic literature research

  • Philip Kaiser , Anselm Balk and Michaela Schaffhauser-Linzatti

Zusammenfassung

Die Plattformökonomie hat sich als irreversible Entwicklung im Austausch von Waren, Dienstleistungen und Informationen in der digitalen Welt etabliert. Anfangs als transparentes Instrument des direkten Kontaktes unter Ausschaltung von Intermediären und somit Transaktionskosten befürwortet, werden nun ihre Schattenseiten wie einseitige Marktmacht und Marktverzerrung sichtbar. Plattformgenossenschaften können aufgrund ihrer Konzeption eine Alternative darstellen. Um die akademische Rezeption der Möglichkeiten und Herausforderungen sowie die Abgrenzung der Plattformgenossenschaft zu gewinnmaximierenden Plattformunternehmen aufzuzeigen, widmet sich dieser Aufsatz anhand einer systematischen Literaturrecherche einer quantitativen und qualitativen Analyse in Hinblick auf wirtschaftliche, soziale und rechtliche Unterscheidungskriterien. Er stellt dabei gewinnmaximierende Plattformen den Plattformgenossenschaften gegenüber und ermöglicht dadurch sowohl eine Systematisierung des Verständnisses von Plattformgenossenschaften als auch ein Aufzeigen aktueller Forschungslücken.

Abstract

The platform economy has established itself as an irreversible development in the exchange of goods, services and information in the digital world. Initially advocated as a transparent instrument of direct contact with the elimination of intermediaries and thus transaction costs, its downsides such as onesided market power and market distortion are now becoming apparent. Due to their conception, platform cooperatives can represent an alternative. In order to show the academic reception of the possibilities and challenges as well as the differentiation of platform cooperatives from profit-maximizing platform companies, this paper is dedicated to a quantitative and qualitative analysis with regard to economic, social and legal differentiation criteria based on a systematic literature review. It compares profit-maximizing platforms with platform cooperatives and thus enables both a systematization of the understanding of platform cooperatives and an identification of current research gaps.

Résumé

L'économie de plateforme s'est établie comme une évolution irréversible dans l'échange de biens, de services et d'informations dans le monde numérique. Initialement préconisée comme un instrument transparent de contact direct, éliminant les intermédiaires et donc les coûts de transaction, ses inconvénients tels que le pouvoir de marché unilatéral et la distorsion du marché sont désormais visibles. Les coopératives de plateforme peuvent représenter une alternative de par leur conception. Afin de montrer la réception académique des possibilités et des défis ainsi que la délimitation de la coopérative de plateforme par rapport aux entreprises de plateforme maximisant les profits, cet article se consacre, à l'aide d'une recherche systématique de littérature, à une analyse quantitative et qualitative en ce qui concerne les critères de distinction économiques, sociaux et juridiques. Il compare les plateformes maximisant les profits aux coopératives de plateformes et permet ainsi de systématiser la compréhension des coopératives de plateformes et de mettre en évidence les lacunes actuelles de la recherche.

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Published Online: 2023-03-21
Published in Print: 2023-03-28

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