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Bourdieu, Weber und Rational Choice: Versuch einer Weiterentwicklung des religiösen Feldmodells am Beispiel Chinas

Nikolas Broy

Zusammenfassung

Der vorliegende Beitrag versucht eine Weiterentwicklung des religiösen Feldmodells des französischen Soziologen Pierre Bourdieu, welches dieser auf der Grundlage der Vorarbeiten Max Webers aufgestellt hat. Am Beispiel der vielseitigen religiösen Landschaft Chinas werde ich zeigen, dass dieses Modell jedoch nur bedingt erklärungsfähig ist, da es (1) die Rolle des Staates und staatlicher Akteure bei der Ausformulierung des religiösen Feldes ausblendet und (2) die von Weber übernommenen vier Akteurstypen bzw. Feldpositionen die Komplexität religiöser Interaktionen in China nicht abbilden können. Ausgehend von dieser Beobachtung werde ich auf die regulative und domestizierende Macht des Staates eingehen und zeigen, dass das religiöse Feld Chinas als Oligopol oder Polypol zu verstehen ist. Des Weiteren werde ich unter Rückgriff auf die chinesische Religionsgeschichte eine detaillierte Differenzierung der Feldpositionen vornehmen und dabei v. a. auf die unterschiedlichen Interessen und Commitments der „Laien“ eingehen.

Abstract

The present article aims at a novel understanding of the “religious field” model as it has been developed by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in his reading of Max Weber’s sociology of religion. Taking the religious landscape of China as a point of departure, I will argue that this model is only of limited value to analyze religious diversity. First, Bourdieu’s model ignores the importance of the state in the formation and regulation of the religious field. Second, his typology of four primary field positions (priest, magician, prophet, and “laity”) is too simplistic to adequately address the variety of religious interactions in China, and other religiously pluralistic societies as well. By taking into account these considerations and by incorporating a number of hypotheses from the “rational choice theorists” Rodney Stark, William Sims Bainbridge, Roger Finke, and Yang Fenggang, I will propose a new understanding of the religious field model.

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Online erschienen: 2017-8-17
Erschienen im Druck: 2017-7-27

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