Skip to content
Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Oldenbourg March 9, 2021

Die Kolonialität der Moderne: Koloniale Zeitlichkeit und die Internalisierung der Idee der ‚Rückständigkeit‘ in China.

Coloniality of the Modern. Colonial Temporality and the Internalization of the Idea of ‘Backwardness’ in China.
Marius Meinhof

Zusammenfassung

Dieser Aufsatz diskutiert die kolonialen Fundamente der Diskurse um Moderne und Rückständigkeit im China des späten 19ten und des 20ten Jahrhunderts aus der Perspektive der postkolonialen Soziologie. Nach dem sino-japanischem Krieg, geprägt durch den Kontext des westlichen und japanischen Kolonialismus, entstanden in China Diskurse, die Chinas Schwäche zu erklären und Dekolonisierungsstrategien auf neue Weise zu formulieren versuchten. Diese Diskurse reproduzierten eine koloniale Vorstellung von Zeitlichkeit, die Orte und Menschen in modern und rückständig klassifizierte. Diese Reproduktion kolonialer Zeitlichkeit in China basierte allerdings nicht einfach auf einer Diffusion westlicher Diskurse nach China, sondern fand in neuen chinesischen Theorien statt, die in einem komplexen, asymmetrischen Verflechtungsprozess entstanden. Dennoch wurden dabei koloniale Weltbilder, insbesondere die Idee der Rückständigkeit der Kolonisierten, von chinesischen Autor*innen koproduziert. Koloniale Zeitlichkeit prägte, wie gezeigt werden wird, Diskurse und Erfahrungen der chinesischen Moderne, und sie ermöglichte es, Kolonialität tief in die eigentlich antikolonialen Modernisierungsbemühungen der Republik China einzuschreiben.

Abstract

This article analyzes the colonial foundation of discourses on modernity and backwardness in late 19th and early 20th century China. At that time new discourses which explained Chinese defeat by colonial powers and pointed out strategies of decolonization emerged after the Sino-Japanese War and were shaped in the context of Western and Japanese colonialism. These discourses implied a colonial notion of temporality which classified the world into modern and backward peoples. This notion of colonial temporality was not based on a diffusion of Western discourses to China but emerged as new Chinese theories from a complex process of asymmetric entanglements. Yet, Chinese authors nevertheless reproduced some of the most basic colonial worldviews, most noticeably the notion of the backwardness of the colonized. Colonial temporality shaped discourses and experiences of Chinese modernity and inscribed coloniality deeply onto Chinese attempts to undertake anti-colonial modernization.

Literatur

Barlow, T., 1997: Introduction: On „Colonial Modernity”. S. 1–20 in: T. Barlow (Hrsg.), Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia. Durham: Duke University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Beck, U. & E. Beck-Gernsheim, 2010: Foreword: Varieties of Individualization. S. xii–xx in: M.H. Hansen & R. Svarverud (Hrsg.), China. The Rise of the Individual in Modern Chinese Society. Copenhagen: NIAS.Search in Google Scholar

Beck, U., A. Giddens & S. Lash, 1997: Reflexive Modernization. Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Cambridge: Polity Press.Search in Google Scholar

Bergmann, W., 1992: The Problem of Time in Sociology. Time and Society 1: 81–134.Search in Google Scholar

Bhambra, G., 2011: Historical Sociology, Modernity, and Postcolonial Critique. American Historical Review 116: 653–662.Search in Google Scholar

Buck-Morss, S., 2000: Hegel and Haiti. Critical Inquiry 26: 821–865.Search in Google Scholar

Callahan, W., 2004: National Insecurities: Humiliation, Salvation, and Chinese Nationalism. Alternatives 29: 199–218.Search in Google Scholar

Césaire, A., 1972: Discourse on Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press.Search in Google Scholar

Chakrabarty, D., 1992: Postcoloniality and the Artifice of History: Who Speaks for „Indian” Pasts? Representations 37: 1–26.Search in Google Scholar

Chakrabarty, D., 2000: Provincializing Europe. Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Chen, D., 1915: 法兰西人与近世文明. 青年杂志1: 1–4. Online Verfügbar unter: https://zh.wikisource.org/zh-hant/新青年/卷1/1號; Letzter Zugriff am 19.06.2019.Search in Google Scholar

Chen, S.-C., 2017: Merchants of War and Peace. British Knowledge of China in the Making of the Opium War. Hongkong: Hong Kong University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Connell, R., 2006: Northern Theory. The Political Geography of General Social Theory. Theory and Society 35: 237–264.Search in Google Scholar

Conrad, S. & S. Randeria (Hrsg.), 2002: Jenseits des Eurozentrismus. Postkoloniale Perspektiven in den Geschichts- und Kulturwissenschaften. Frankfurt am Main/New York: Campus.Search in Google Scholar

Cooper, F. & A.L. Stoler (Hrsg.), 1997: Tensions of Empire. Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. Berkeley: University of California Press.Search in Google Scholar

Dabringhaus, S., 2006: Territorialer Nationalismus in China. Historisch-geographisches Denken 1900–1949. Köln: Böhlau.Search in Google Scholar

Dikötter, F., 2009: Objects and Agency. Material Culture and Modernity in China. S. 158–172 in: K. Harvey (Hrsg.), History and Material Culture. A Student’s Guide to Approaching Alternative Sources. London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Dirlik, A., 1996: Chinese History and the Question of Orientalism. History and Theory 35: 96–118.Search in Google Scholar

Duara, P., 1991: Knowledge and Power in the Discourse of Modernity: The Campaign Against Popular Religion in Early Twentieth-Century China. Journal of Asian Studies 50: 67–83.Search in Google Scholar

Duara, P., 1995: Rescuing History from the Nation. Questioning Narratives of Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Eisenstadt, S., 2000: Multiple Modernities. Daedalus 129: 1–29.Search in Google Scholar

Escobar, A., 1995: Encountering Development. The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Fabian, J., 1983: Time and the Other. How Anthropology Makes its Object. New York: Columbia University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Friese, H., 1993: Die Konstruktionen von Zeit. Zum prekären Verhältnis von akademischer Theorie und lokaler Praxis. Zeitschrift für Soziologie 22: 323–337.Search in Google Scholar

Gallagher, J. & R. Robertson, 1953: The Imperialism of Free Trade. Economic History Review 6: 1–15.Search in Google Scholar

Giddens, A., 1990: The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Search in Google Scholar

Go, J., 2016: Postcolonial Thought and Social Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Goodman, B. & D. Goodman (Hrsg.), 2012: Twentieth Century Colonialism and China. Localities, the Everyday, and the World. London: Taylor and Francis.Search in Google Scholar

Gransow, B., 2006: Konzeptionen chinesischer Modernisierung: Auf der Suche nach Wohlstand und Stärke. S. 151–164 in: T. Schwinn (Hrsg.), Die Vielfalt und Einheit der Moderne. Kultur- und strukturvergleichende Analysen. Wiesbaden: VS.Search in Google Scholar

Greenhalgh, S., 2003: Science, Modernity, and the Making of China‘s One-Child Policy. Population and Development Review 29: 163–196.Search in Google Scholar

Grosfoguel, R., 2002: Colonial Difference, Geopolitics of Knowledge, and Global Coloniality in the Modern/Colonial Capitalist World System. Review 25: 203–224.Search in Google Scholar

Hu, C.-T., 1994: Exemplarisches und fortschrittliches Geschichtsdenken in China. Ein Diskussionsbeitrag. S. 180–183 in: W. Küttler, J. Rüsen & E. Schulin (Hrsg.), Geschichtsdiskurs. Band 2. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer.Search in Google Scholar

Huang, H., 2017: National Humiliation Discourse, Historical Memories and Acculturation: An Autoethnographic Study. Journal of Multicultural Discourses 12: 120–133.Search in Google Scholar

Karl, R.E., 2002: Staging the World. Chinese Nationalism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. Durham NC: Duke University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Koselleck, R., 2004a: Historia Magistra Vitae. The Dissolution of the Topos into the Perspective of a Modernized Historical Process. S. 26–42 in: Ders., Futures Past. On the Semantics of Historical Time. New York: Columbia University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Koselleck, R., 2004b: History, Histories, and Formal Time Structures. S. 93–104 in: Ders., Futures Past. On the Semantics of Historical Time. New York: Columbia University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Koselleck, R., 2004c: „Space of Experience” and „Horizon of Expectation”: Two Historical Categories. S. 255–275 in: Ders., Futures Past. On the Semantics of Historical Time. New York: Columbia University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Kuo, Y., 2013: Temporality of Knowledge and History Writing in Early Twentieth-Century China. Liu Yizheng and a History of Chinese Culture. S. 277–292 in: V. Murthy & A. Schneider (Hrsg.), The Challenge of Linear Time. Nationhood and the Politics of History in East Asia. Leiden: Brill.Search in Google Scholar

Kwong, L., 2001: The Rise of the Linear Perspective on History and Time in Late Qing China. Past & Present: 157–190.Search in Google Scholar

Luo, R. (Hrsg.), 2008: 从西化到现代化. 合肥: 黄山书社.Search in Google Scholar

Luo, Z., 2015: Inheritance Within Rupture. Culture and Scholarship in Early Twentieth Century China. Leiden: Brill.Search in Google Scholar

Mao, H., 2016: The Qing Empire and the Opium War. The Collapse of the Heavenly Dynasty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Matten, M.A., 2016: Imagining a Postnational World. Hegemony and Space in Modern China. Leiden: Brill.Search in Google Scholar

Meinhof, M., 2018: Contesting Chinese Modernity? Postcoloniality and Discourses on Modernisation at a Chinese University Campus. Postcolonial Studies 21: 1–16.Search in Google Scholar

Meinhof, M., 2020: Othering the Virus. Discover Society (Online Journal). Online verfügbar unter https://discoversociety.org/2020/03/21/othering-the-virus/. Letzter Zugriff 24.07.2020Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, J., 1980: The World Polity and the Authority of the Nation-State. S. 109–137 in: A. Bergesen (Hrsg.), Studies of the Modern World-System. New York: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mühlhahn, K., 2007: China als Halbkolonie. Die kolonialen Stützpunkte und Pachtgebiete der europäischen Großmächte. S. 27–31 in: M. Leutner & K. Mühlhahn (Hrsg.), Kolonialkrieg in China. Die Niederschlagung der Boxerbewegung 1900–1901. Berlin: Links.Search in Google Scholar

Mühlhahn, K., 2019: Making China Modern. From the Great Qing to Xi Jinping. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Needham, J., 1988: Time and Eastern Man. Cultural Dynamics 1: 62–76.Search in Google Scholar

Osterhammel, J., 1986: Semi-Colonialism and Informal Empire in Twentieth-Century China: Towards a Framework of Analysis. S. 290–314 in: W.J. Mommsen (Hrsg.), Imperialism and After. Continuities and Discontinuities. London: Allen & Unwin.Search in Google Scholar

Quijano, A., 2008: Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism, and Latin America. S. 181–224 in: M. Moraña, E.D. Dussel & C.A. Jáuregui (Hrsg.), Coloniality at Large. Latin America and the Postcolonial Debate. Durham: Duke University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Rammstedt, O. 1975: Alltagsbewusstsein von Zeit. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 27: 47–63.Search in Google Scholar

Randeria, S., 2002: Entangled Histories of Uneven Modernities: Civil Society, Caste Solidarities and Legal Pluralism in Post-Colonial India. S. 284–311 in: Y. Elkana, I. Krastev, E.S. Macamo & S. Randeria (Hrsg.), Unraveling Ties. From Social Cohesion to New Practices of Connectedness. Frankfurt am Main/New York: Campus.Search in Google Scholar

Rofel, L., 1999: Other Modernities. Gendered Yearnings in China After Socialism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Search in Google Scholar

Ruskola, T., 2013: Legal Orientalism. China, the United States, and Modern Law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Said, E.W., 1978: Orientalism. New York: Pantheon.Search in Google Scholar

Schmidt-Glintzer, H., 1994: Die Modernisierung des historischen Denkens im China des 16.–18. Jahrhunderts und seine Grenzen. S. 165–179 in: W. Küttler, J. Rüsen & E. Schulin (Hrsg.), Geschichtsdiskurs. Band 2. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer.Search in Google Scholar

Seth, S., 2009: Historical Sociology and Postcolonial Theory: Two Strategies for Challenging Eurocentrism. International Political Sociology 3: 334–338.Search in Google Scholar

Shih, S., 2001: The Lure of the Modern. Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917–1937. Berkeley: University of California Press.Search in Google Scholar

Siddiqi, A., 2005: Pathways of the Poppy: India’s Opium Trade in the Nineteenth Century. S. 21–32 in: M. Thampi (Hrsg.), India and China in the Colonial World. New Delhi: Social Science Press.Search in Google Scholar

Steinmetz, G., 2007: The Devil’s Handwriting. Precoloniality and the German Colonial State in Qingdao, Samoa, and Southwest Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Thampi, M., 2005: The Indian Community in China and Sino-Indian Relations. S. 66–82 in: M. Thampi (Hrsg.), India and China in the Colonial World. New Delhi: Social Science Press.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, H., 1998: Contemporary Chinese Thought and the Question of Modernity. Social Text 16: 9–44.Search in Google Scholar

Wilk, R., 1994: Colonial Time and TV Time: Television and Temporality in Belize. Visual Anthropology Review 10: 94–102.Search in Google Scholar

Yang, M.M.-h., 2011: Postcoloniality and Religiosity in Modern China. The Disenchantments of Sovereignty. Theory, Culture and Society 28: 3–45.Search in Google Scholar

Yang, X., 2008: 论中国现代化 [1933]. S. 248–260 in: R. Luo (Hrsg.), 从西化到现代化. 合肥: 黄山书社.Search in Google Scholar

Yu, K., 2010: „Westernization” vs. „Sinicization”: An Ineffaceable Paradox Within China’s Modernization Process. S. 153–195 in: T.Y. Cao, X. Zhong & K. Liao (Hrsg.), Culture and Social Transformations in Reform Era China. Leiden: Brill.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, L., 2006: Contesting Spatial Modernity in Late-Socialist China. Current Anthropology 47: 461–484.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, Y., 1994: 现代性的终结. 一个无法回避的课题. 战略与管理1: 104–109.Search in Google Scholar

Zhu, L., 2017: From „the Art of War” to „the Force of War”. Colonialism and the Chinese Perception of War in Transition. Interdisciplines 8: 27–50.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-03-09
Published in Print: 2021-03-08

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston