Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 20, 2017

Das Tor nach Sub-Sahara Afrika? Kapstadts Potenzial als Gateway City für den Öl- und Gassektor

The gateway to Sub-Saharan Africa? Cape Town’s potential as a gateway city for the oil and gas sector
Sören Scholvin

Zusammenfassung

Aufstrebende Wirtschaftsmächte sind Impulsgeber für den Globalen Süden. Weltstädte in diesen Ländern binden periphere Standorte in globale Güterketten ein und ermöglichen somit dort wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. In diesem Artikel wird das Konzept der „Gateway Cities“ entworfen und am Beispiel Kapstadts und des Öl- und Gassektors veranschaulicht. Konzepte, die den drei Ds – Density, Distance und Division – aus dem Weltentwicklungsbericht 2009 zugrunde liegen, sowie Linkages bilden den Ausgangspunkt, um die Rolle von Gateway Cities zu erklären.

Abstract

Emerging economies generate impulses for the Global South. World cities in these countries integrate peripheral places into global commodity chains, enabling the peripheral places to develop economically. In this article the concept of ‘gateway cities’ is drafted and exemplified by Cape Town and the oil and gas sector. The starting point of my explanation of the role of gateway cities is the three Ds – density, distance and division – from the 2009 World Development Report and linkages.

Literatur

A Barrel Full (2017): African Refineries. Internet: http://abarrelfull.wikidot.com/african-refineries, 28.02.2017. Search in Google Scholar

African Development Bank (2010): African Development Report 2010. Ports, Logistics and Trade in Africa. Internet: http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/African%20Development%20Report%202010.pdf, 06.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Akinboade, O. A./Lalthapersad-Pillay, P. (2009): The NEPAD Initiative and the Prospects of Business Opportunities in the Rest of Africa for South African Firms Based in Gauteng. In: Development Southern Africa, (26)1, 131–155.10.1080/03768350802640198 Search in Google Scholar

Alderson, A. S./Beckfield, J. (2004): Power and Position in the World City System. In: American Journal of Sociology, (109)4, 811–851.10.1086/378930 Search in Google Scholar

Alderson, A. S./Beckfield, J. (2012): Corporate Networks of World Cities. In: Derudder, B. et al. (Hrsg.): International Handbook of Globalization and World Cities. Cheltenham, 126–134. Search in Google Scholar

Amin, A./Graham, S. (1997): The Ordinary City. In: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (22)4, 411–429.10.1111/j.0020-2754.1997.00411.x Search in Google Scholar

Bangar, R./Kumar, D. (2013): Can China and India Be Growth Drivers for Developing Asia?. In: European Journal of Development Research, (25)3, 367–384.10.1057/ejdr.2012.30 Search in Google Scholar

Beaverstock, J. V. et al. (1999): A Roster of World Cities. In: Cities (16)6, 445–458.10.1016/S0264-2751(99)00042-6 Search in Google Scholar

BP (2016): South Africa. Internet: http://www.bp.com/en_za/southern-africa/bp-in-southern-africa/south-africa.html, 16.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Bryson, J. R. et al. (2004): Service Worlds: People, Organizations, Technologies. London. Search in Google Scholar

Burghardt, A. F. (1971): A Hypothesis about Gateway Cities. In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers (61)2, 269–285.10.1111/j.1467-8306.1971.tb00782.x Search in Google Scholar

Cai, J./Sit, V. F. (2003): Measuring World City Formation. The Case of Shanghai. In: Annals of Regional Science (37)3, 435–446.10.1007/s00168-003-0163-8 Search in Google Scholar

City of Cape Town (2016): Cape Town Taking its Place as an Energy Capital. Statement by the City’s Executive Mayor, Patricia de Lille. Internet: http://www.capetown.gov.za/media-and-news/Cape%20Town%20taking%20its%20place%20as%20an%20energy%20capital, 17.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Coe, Neil M. et al. (2010): Making Connections: Global Production Networks and World Cities. In: Global Networks (10)1, 138–149.10.1111/j.1471-0374.2010.00278.x Search in Google Scholar

Coe, Neil M./Yeung, Henry W. (2015): Global Production Networks: Theorizing Economic Development in an Interconnected World. Oxford. Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, R. B. (1981): The New International Division of Labour, Multinational Corporations and Urban Hierarchy. In: Michael, D./Scott, A. J. (Hrsg.): Urbanization and Urban Planning in Capitalist Society. New York, 287–315. Search in Google Scholar

Economist (2013): Emerging Africa. A Hopeful Continent. Internet: http://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/20130203_emerging_africa.pdf, 18.11.2016 Search in Google Scholar

Erasmus, G. (2014): A New Road to Regional Integration. Stellenbosch (=TRALAC Trade Brief 4/2014). Search in Google Scholar

ExxonMobil (2003): Africa. Energy for Growth. Internet: http://www.exxonmobilafrica.com/files/PA/Africa/BROCHURE_AFRICA_ENG.pdf, 17.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Friedmann, J./Wolff, G. (1982): World City Formation. An Agenda for Research and Action. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (6)3, 309–344.10.1111/j.1468-2427.1982.tb00384.x Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G. (1994): The Organization of Buyer-Driven Global Commodity Chains. How U.S. Retailers Shape Overseas Production Networks. In: Gereffi, G./Korzeniewicz, M. (Hrsg.): Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism. Westport, 95–122. Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G./Korzeniewicz, M. (Hrsg.) (1994): Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism. Westport. Search in Google Scholar

Grant, R./Nijman, J. (2002): Globalization and the Corporate Geography of Cities in the Less-Developed World. In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers (92)2, 320–340.10.1111/1467-8306.00293 Search in Google Scholar

Grubesic, T. H./Matisziw, T. C. (2012): World Cities and Airline Networks. In: Derruder, B. et al. (Hrsg.): International Handbook of Globalization and World Cities. Cheltenham, 97–116. Search in Google Scholar

Gu, J. (2009): China’s Private Enterprises in Africa and the Implications for African Development. In: European Journal of Development Research (21)4, 570–587.10.1057/ejdr.2009.21 Search in Google Scholar

Hesse, M. (2010): Cities, Material Flows and the Geography of Spatial Interaction. Urban Places in the System of Chains. In: Derruder, B./Witlox, F. (Hrsg.): Commodity Chains and World Cities. Oxford, 91–110. Search in Google Scholar

Hirschman, A. O. (1958): The Strategy of Economic Development. New Haven, CT. Search in Google Scholar

Hirschman, A. O. (1981): Essays in Trespassing. Economics to Politics and Beyond. New York. Search in Google Scholar

Humphrey, J. (2003): Globalization and Supply Chain Networks. The Auto Industry in Brazil and India. In: Global Networks (3)2, 121–141.10.1111/1471-0374.00053 Search in Google Scholar

Humphrey, J./Schmitz, H. (2008): China. Growth Engine or Obstacle for Asian Developing Economies?. In: Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie (52)1, 50–66. Search in Google Scholar

Hymer, S. (1972): The Mulitnational Corporation and the Law of Uneven Development. In: Bhagwati, J. (Hrsg.): Economics and World Order. New York, 113–140. Search in Google Scholar

Jacobs, W. et al. (2010): Integrating World Cities into Production Networks. The Case of Port Cities. In: Derruder, B./Witlox, F. (Hrsg.): Commodity Chains and World Cities. Oxford, 111–135. Search in Google Scholar

Kanna, A. (2007): Dubai in a Jagged World. In: Middle East Report (243), 23–29. Search in Google Scholar

Kaplinsky, R./McCormick, D./Morris, M. (2007): The Impact of China on Sub-Saharan Africa. Brighton (=IDS Working Paper 291). Search in Google Scholar

Knox, P. L./Taylor, P. J. (1995): World Cities in a World-System. Cambridge. Search in Google Scholar

Krugman, P. (1991a): Geography and Trade. Cambridge. Search in Google Scholar

Krugman, P. (1991b): Increasing Returns and Economic Geography. In: Journal of Political Economy (99)3, 483–499.10.1086/261763 Search in Google Scholar

Krugman, P. (1992): A Dynamic Spatial Model. Cambridge (=NBER Working Paper 4219). Search in Google Scholar

Krugman, P./Venables, A. J. (1990): Integration and the Competitiveness of Peripheral Industry. In: Bliss, C./Braga de Macedo, J. (Hrsg.): Unity with Diversity in the European Community. Cambridge, 56–75. Search in Google Scholar

Krugman, P./Venables, A. J. (1995): Globalization and the Inequality of Nations. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics (110), 857–880.10.2307/2946642 Search in Google Scholar

Martin, R./Sunley, P. (1996): Paul Krugman’s Geographical Economics and Its Implications for Regional Development Theory. A Critical Assessment. In: Economic Geography (72)3, 259–292.10.2307/144401 Search in Google Scholar

Martinus, K. et al. (2015): Strategic Globalizing Centers and Sub-Network Geometries: A Social Network Analysis of Multi-Scalar Energy Networks. In: Geoforum (64), 78–89.10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.06.006 Search in Google Scholar

Martinus, K./Tonts, M. (2015): Powering the World City System: Energy Industry Networks and Interurban Connectivity. In: Environment and Planning A (47)7, 1502–1520.10.1177/0308518X15599124 Search in Google Scholar

Merk, O./Dang, T. T. (2012): Efficiency of World Ports in Container and Bulk Cargo (Oil, Coal, Ores and Grain). Paris (=OECD Regional Development Working Papers 9/2012). Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, S./Revilla Diez, J. (2014): One Country, Two Systems. How Regional Institutions Shape Governance Modes in the Greater Pearl River Delta, China. In: Papers in Regional Science (94)4, 891–900. Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, S./Schiller, D./Revilla Diez, J. (2012): The Localization of Electronics Manufacturing in the Greater Pearl River Delta, China. Do Global Implants Put Down Local Roots. In: Applied Geography (32)1, 119–129.10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.11.021 Search in Google Scholar

Morris, M./Kaplinsky, R./Kaplan, D. (2012): One Thing Leads to Another. Promoting Industrialisation by Making the Most of the Commodity Boom in Sub-Saharan Africa. Internet: http://www.prism.uct.ac.za/Downloads/MMCP%20Book.pdf, 9.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Nijman, J. (2007): Place-Particularity and “Deep Analogies”: A Comparative Essay on Miami’s Rise as a World City. In: Urban Geography (28)1, 92–107.10.2747/0272-3638.28.1.92 Search in Google Scholar

Parnreiter, C. (2010): Global Cities in Global Commodity Chains. Exploring the Role of Mexico City in the Geography of Global Economic Governance. In: Derruder, B./Witlox, F. (Hrsg.): Commodity Chains and World Cities. Oxford, 43–64. Search in Google Scholar

Parnreiter, C. (2015): Managing and Governing Commodity Chains. The Role of Producer Service Firms in the Secondary Global City of Hamburg. In: Die Erde (146)1, 1–15. Search in Google Scholar

Parnreiter, C./Haferburg, C./Oßenbrügge, J. (2013): Shifting Corporate Geographies in Global Cities of the South: Mexico City and Johannesburg as Case Studies. In: Die Erde (144)1, 1–16. Search in Google Scholar

Provincial Treasury [of the Western Cape] (2015): Provincial Economic Review and Outlook 2015. Internet: https://www.westerncape.gov.za/assets/departments/treasury/Documents/2015_pero_final_to_web_15_otober_2015.pdf, 28.02.16. Search in Google Scholar

Ramos Schiffer, S. (2002): São Paulo. Articulating a Cross-Border Region. In: Sassen, S. (Hrsg.): Global Networks: Linked Cities. London, 209–236. Search in Google Scholar

Redvers, L. (2013): Angola, the Reluctant SADC Trader. Johannesburg (=SAIIA Occasional Paper 152). Search in Google Scholar

Rodríguez-Pose, A. (2010): Economic Geographers and the Limelight. The Reaction to the 2009 World Development Report. In: Economic Geography (86)4, 361–370.10.1111/j.1944-8287.2010.01094.x Search in Google Scholar

Rossi, E. C./Beaverstock, J. V./Taylor, P. J. (2007): Transaction Links through Cities: “Decision Cities” and “Service Cities”. In: Geoforum (38), 628–642.10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.11.005 Search in Google Scholar

Rossi, E. C./Taylor, P. J. (2005): Banking Networks Across Brazilian Cities: Interlocking Cities Within and Beyond Brazil. In: Cities (22)5, 381–393.10.1016/j.cities.2005.07.002 Search in Google Scholar

Santos, A. M. (2002): Reestruturação da indústria automobilística na América do Sul. Internet: https://web.bndes.gov.br/bib/jspui/handle/1408/4381, 2.11.2016 Search in Google Scholar

Sassen, S. (2001): The Global City. Princeton. Search in Google Scholar

Scholvin, S./Draper, P. (2012): The Gateway to Africa?. Geography and South Africa’s Role as an Economic Hinge Joint between Africa and the World. In: South African Journal of International Affairs (19)3, 381–400.10.1080/10220461.2012.740321 Search in Google Scholar

Scholvin, S. (2017): Cape Town as a Gateway City. Interlinking the Sub-Saharan Oil and Gas Sector Globally. In: du Pisani, A. et al. (Hrsg.): Monitoring Regional Integration in Southern Africa 2015/2016. Stellenbosch, im Erscheinen. Search in Google Scholar

Sigler, T. J. (2013): Relational Cities: Doha, Panama City, and Dubai as 21st Century Entrepôts. In: Urban Geography (34)5, 612–633.10.1080/02723638.2013.778572 Search in Google Scholar

Storper, M. (1995): The Resurgence of Regional Economies Ten Years Later: The Region as a Nexus of Untraded Interdependencies. In: European Urban and Regional Studies 2(3), 191–221. Search in Google Scholar

Storper, M. (1997): The Regional World. Territorial Development in a Global Economy. New York. Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, P. J. et al. (2002a): Measurement of the World City Network. In: Urban Studies (39)13, 2367–2376.10.1080/00420980220080011 Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, P. J. et al. (2002b): Exploratory Analysis of the World City Network. In: Urban Studies (39)13, 2377–2394. Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, Peter J. et al. (2002c): Diversity and Power in the World City Network. In: Cities (19)4, 231–241.10.1016/S0264-2751(02)00020-3 Search in Google Scholar

Tribe, M. (2002): An Overview of Manufacturing Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Belshaw, D./Livingstone, I. (Hrsg.): Renewing Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy, Performance and Prospects. London, 263–284. Search in Google Scholar

UN Conference on Trade and Development (2015): Liner Shipping Connectivity Index. Internet: http://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=92, 26.11.2106. Search in Google Scholar

Venables, A. J. (1996): Equilibrium Locations of Vertically Linked Industries. In: International Economic Review (37), 341–359.10.2307/2527327 Search in Google Scholar

Wall, R. S./van der Knaap, B. (2012): Centrality, Hierarchy and Heterarchy of Worldwide Corporate Networks. In: Derruder, B. et al. (Hrsg.): International Handbook of Globalization and World Cities. Cheltenham, 209–229. Search in Google Scholar

Weltbank. (2009): World Development Report: Reshaping Economic Geography. Internet: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/730971468139804495/pdf/437380REVISED01BLIC1097808213760720.pdf. 16.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Weltbank (2014): Logistics Performance Index: Country Score Card South Africa. Internet: http://lpi.worldbank.org/international/scorecard/radar/254/C/ZAF/2014/R/SSA/2014/I/UMC/2014#chartarea, 14.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Weltbank (2015a): Worldwide Governance Indicators. Internet: http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.aspx#reports, 14.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Weltbank (2015b): Doing Business: Historical Data Sets and Trends Data. Internet: http://www.doingbusiness.org/custom-query, 14.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Western Cape Government (2002): Oil and Gas Initiative Update. Internet: https://www.westerncape.gov.za/sites/www.westerncape.gov.za/files/documents/2003/oil_gas_october__update_and_looking_ahead_herman.doc, 17.11.2016. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-11-29
Accepted: 2017-6-23
Published Online: 2017-9-20
Published in Print: 2017-9-26

© 2017 by De Gruyter