Skip to content
Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 27, 2021

Intermediation, Disintermediation und Cybermediäre: Zum Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf Wertschöpfungsketten in der Schuhbranche

Christopher Herb and Cordula Neiberger

Zusammenfassung

Globale Wertschöpfungsketten (WSK) werden derzeit, hervorgerufen durch die neuen technischen und organisatorischen Möglichkeiten der Digitalisierung, in besonderem Maße restrukturiert. Bisherige Forschungen konzentrierten sich dabei weitgehend auf die Auswirkungen auf Zulieferer in Ländern des globalen Südens. Dieser Beitrag nimmt dagegen den Teil des Vertriebs in den Blick. Anhand der deutschen Schuhbranche werden die Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung auf die Steuerungsmacht in diesem Teil der Wertschöpfungsketten sowie die damit einhergehenden Beziehungen zwischen den Akteuren und zwischen verschiedenen WSK innerhalb der Branche näher beleuchtet. Dabei konnten vor allem Sportartikelhersteller und Online-Plattformen aufgrund des hohen Digitalisierungsgrades in (Herstellungs-,) Kommunikations- und Vertriebsprozessen als zentrale Akteure (Leitunternehmen) identifiziert werden. Zudem zeigen die Untersuchungsergebnisse, dass Akteure mit einer geringen Umsetzung digitaler Prozesse zum Teil bereits aus Wertschöpfungsketten ausgeschlossen werden. Folglich möchte der Beitrag das Bewusstsein dafür schärfen, dass der Digitalisierungsfortschritt von Unternehmen als kritische Determinante für die Teilnahme an WSK herangezogen sowie für die Verhandlung von Gorvernanceformen zwischen Akteuren berücksichtigt werden sollte.

Abstract

Global value chains (GVC) are currently being restructured to a particularly high degree as a result of the new technical and organizational possibilities offered by digitization. Previous research has largely focused on the effects on suppliers in countries of the global South. This article, however, focuses on the distribution part. Using the German footwear sector as an example, the effects of digitization are examined in two parts: The governance in the focused part of the value chain and the accompanying relationships between the players and between the different value chains within the sector. Due to the high degree of digitization in (manufacturing,) communication, and distribution processes, sports goods manufacturers and online platforms in particular have been identified as central players (lead firms). As a result, this paper aims to raise awareness of the fact that the progress of digitization of companies should be taken into account as a critical determinant for participation in GVCs and for the negotiation of governance types between actors.

Literatur

Adidas AG (2020a): 2020 Globale Herstellerliste. https://www.adidas-group.com/media/filer_public/ec/0c/ec0c08dd-7e49-44ff-860f-4cc64fda5d30/2020_adidas_global_supplier_list.xlsx (04.05.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Adidas AG (2020b): Geschäftsbericht 2019. Herzogenaurach. https://report.adidas-group.com/2019/de/serviceseiten/downloads/files/adidas_geschaeftsbericht_2019.pdf (04.05.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Adidas AG (2020c): Geschichte. https://www.adidas-group.com/de/unternehmen/geschichte/ (04.05.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Anders, A./Augustin, A. (2016): Statistik-Report Schuhe 2016 mit Anhang Lederwaren. BDSE. Köln.Search in Google Scholar

ANWR Group (2018a): 2017 Geschäftsbericht. https://www.anwr-group.com/za/media/media__com_anwr_gr_ws/dokumente_1/geschaeftsbericht/GB_ANWR_GROUP_2017.pdf (14.04.2020).Search in Google Scholar

ANWR Group (2018b): Datenbasiert handeln (Vortrag ANWR Zukunftsforum). Wie wir Sie bei der Optimierung Ihres Ein-und Verkaufs unterstützen. https://www.anwr-zukunftsforum.de/fileadmin/fm-dam/ANWR_ZUKUNFTSFORUM/Dokumente_2018/Vortraege_2018/FF_Gromer.pdf (14.04.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Baker, K. de/Flaig, D. (2017): The future of Global value Chains. Business as usual or „a new normal“? OECD Science, technology and innovation policy papers, No. 41.Search in Google Scholar

Baldwin, R. E. (2016): The great convergence. Information technology and the new globalization. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England.10.4159/9780674972667Search in Google Scholar

Banga, K. (2019): Digital technologies and ‚value‘ capture in global value chains. Empirical evidence from Indian manufacturing firms. United Nations University World Insitute for Development Economics Research. https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/Publications/Working-paper/PDF/wp-2019-43.pdf (31.07.2020).10.35188/UNU-WIDER/2019/677-7Search in Google Scholar

Bathelt, H./Glückler, J. (2018): Wirtschaftsgeographie. Ökonomische Beziehungen in räumlicher Perspektive. 4. Aufl. Stuttgart.10.36198/9783838587288Search in Google Scholar

Bazan, L./Navas-Aleman, L. (2004): The underground revolution in the Sinos Valley. A comparison of upgrading in global and national value chains. In: Schmitz, H. (Ed.): Local enterprises in the global economy. Issues of governance and upgrading. Cheltenham, Northampton, 110–139.Search in Google Scholar

BDSE (2019): Zahl der Schuhfachgeschäfte weiter rückläufig. https://www.bdse.org/zahl-der-schuhfachgesch%C3%A4fte-weiter-r%C3%BCckl%C3%A4ufig/ (21.06.2019).Search in Google Scholar

Belso-Martinez, J. A. (2010): Outsourcing Decisions, Product Innovation and the Spatial Dimension. Evidence from the Spanish Footwear Industry. In: Urban Studies, (47)14, 3057–3077.Search in Google Scholar

Benjamin, R. I./Wigand, R. T. (1995): Electronic Markets and Virtual Value Chains on the Information Superhighway. In: MIT Sloan Management Review, (36)2, 62–72.Search in Google Scholar

Bertram, H. (2008): Local customers – global buyers: Der deutsche Schuhfachhandel zwischen den Fronten. In: Geographische Rundschau, (60)9, 20–27.Search in Google Scholar

BMWi (2020): Den digitalen Wandel gestalten. https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/DE/Dossier/digitalisierung.html (30.07.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Chircu, A. M./Kauffman, R. J. (2000): Reintermediation Strategies in Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce. In: International Journal of Electronic Commerce, (4)4, 7–42.10.1080/10864415.2000.11518377Search in Google Scholar

Chung, K. C./Fleming, P./Fleming, E. (2013): The impact of information and communication technology on international trade in fruit and vegetables in APEC. In: Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, (27)2, 117–130.10.1111/apel.12028Search in Google Scholar

Clement, R./Schreiber, D. (2010): Internet-Ökonomie. Heidelberg.10.1007/978-3-7908-2596-1_13Search in Google Scholar

Coase, R. H. (1937): The Nature of the Firm. In: Economica, (4)16, 386–405.10.1111/j.1468-0335.1937.tb00002.xSearch in Google Scholar

Dallas, M. P./Ponte, S./Sturgeon, T. J. (2019): Power in global value chains. In: Review of International Political Economy, (26)4, 666–694.10.1080/09692290.2019.1608284Search in Google Scholar

Dispan, J./Stieler, S. (2015): Leder- und Schuhindustrie. Branchentrends und Herausforderungen. Stuttgart, Hannover.Search in Google Scholar

Dolan, C./Humphrey, J. (2000): Governance and Trade in Fresh Vegetables. The Impact of UK Supermarkets on the African Horticulture Industry. In: Journal of Development Studies, (37)2, 147–176.Search in Google Scholar

Dolan, C./Humphrey, J. (2004): Changing Governance Patterns in the Trade in Fresh Vegetables between Africa and the United Kingdom. In: Environment and Planning A, (36)3, 491–509.10.1068/a35281Search in Google Scholar

Donaghu, M. T./Barff, R. (1990): Nike just did it. International Subcontracting and Flexibility in Athletic Footwear Production. In: Regional Studies, (24)6, 537–552.Search in Google Scholar

Döring, N./Bortz, J. (2016): Stichprobenziehung. In: Döring, N./Bortz, J. (Hrsg.): Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation in den Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften. 5. Aufl. Berlin, Heidelberg, 291–320.10.1007/978-3-642-41089-5_9Search in Google Scholar

Esho, H. (2015): Dynamics of the Textiles & Apparel Industries in Southeast Asia. A Preliminary Analysis. In: Journal of International Economic Studies, 29, 85–106.Search in Google Scholar

Fernandez-Stark, K./Frederick, S./Gereffi, G. (2011): The Apparel Global Value Chain. Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development. Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness, Duke University. https://gvcc.duke.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011-11-11_CGGC_Ex.Summary_Apparel-Global-Value-Chain.pdf (15.10.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Ferrantino, M. J./Koten, E. K. (2019): Understanding Supply Chain 4.0 and its potential impact on global value chains. In: World Trade Organization (Hrsg.): Technological innovation, supply chain trade, and workers in a globalized world. Global value chains development report 2019. Washington, D.C., 103–120.Search in Google Scholar

Fost, M. (2014): E-Commerce-Strategien für produzierende Unternehmen. Mit stationären Handelsstrukturen am Wachstum partizipieren. Wiesbaden.10.1007/978-3-658-04988-1Search in Google Scholar

Foster, C. et al. (2017): Digital Control in Value Chains. Challenges of Connectivity for East African Firms. In: Economic Geography, (94)1, 68–86.Search in Google Scholar

Foster, C./Graham, M. (2016): Reconsidering the role of the digital in global production networks. In: Global Networks, (17)1, 68–88.10.1111/glob.12142Search in Google Scholar

Frederick, S./Gereffi, G. (2011): Upgrading and restructuring in the global apparel value chain. Why China and Asia are outperforming Mexico and Central America. In: International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, (4)1/2/3, 67.10.1504/IJTLID.2011.041900Search in Google Scholar

Frenzel Baudisch, A. (2006): Functional demand satiation and industrial dynamics. The emergence of the global value chain for the U. S. footwear industry. Aalborg, Göttingen. DRUID working paper, Nr. 06–3.Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G. (1994): The Organization of Buyer-Driven Global Commodity Chains. How U.S. Retailers Shape Overseas Production Networks. In: Gereffi, G./Korzeniewicz, M. (Eds.): Commodity chains and global capitalism. Westport, Conn, 95–122.Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G. (2001): Shifting Governance Structures in Global Commodity Chains, With Special Reference to the Internet. In: American Behavioral Scientist, (44)10, 1616–1637.10.1177/00027640121958087Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G./Fernandez-Stark, K. (2010): The Offshore Services Value Chain:. Developing Countries and the Crisis. In: Cattaneo, O./Gereffi, G./Staritz, C. (Eds.): Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World. A Development Perspective. o.O., 335–372.Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G./Fernandez-Stark, K. (2016): Global Value Chain Analysis. A Primer. 2. Aufl. Duke Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness; Duke University. Durham. https://gvcc.duke.edu/wp-content/uploads/Duke_CGGC_Global_Value_Chain_GVC_Analysis_Primer_2nd_Ed_2016.pdf (20.04.2017).Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G./Humphrey, J./Sturgeon, T. (2005): The governance of global value chains. In: Review of International Political Economy, (12)1, 78–104.10.1017/9781108559423.005Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G./Korzeniewicz, M./Korzeniewicz, R. P. (1994): Introduction. Global Commodity Chains. In: Gereffi, G./Korzeniewicz, M. (Eds.): Commodity chains and global capitalism. Westport, Conn, 1–14.Search in Google Scholar

Gereffi, G./Memedovic, O. (2003): The Global Apparel Value Chain. What Prospects for Upgrading by Developing Countries. United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Wien. https://www.unido.org/sites/default/files/2009-12/Global_apparel_value_chain_0.pdf (18.09.2018).Search in Google Scholar

Gibbon, P. (2008): Governance, Entry Barriers, Upgrading. A Re-Interpretation of Some GVC Concepts from the Experience of African Clothing Exports. In: Competition & Change, (12)1, 29–48.Search in Google Scholar

GIK (2018): b4p 2018 Berichtsband. best for planning. Gesellschaft für integrierte Kommunikationsforschung mbH & Co. KG. München. https://gik.media/cms/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Berichtsband-b4p-2018.pdf (18.12.2018).Search in Google Scholar

Giuliani, E./Pietrobelli, C./Rabellotti, R. (2005): Upgrading in Global Value Chains. Lessons from Latin American Clusters. In: World Development, (33)4, 549–573.Search in Google Scholar

Grabher, G./van Tuijl, E. (2020): Uber -production: From global networks to digital platforms. In: Environment and Planning A, (52)5, 1005–1016.10.1177/0308518X20916507Search in Google Scholar

Graham, M. (2008): Warped Geographies of Development. The Internet and Theories of Economic Development. In: Geography Compass, (2)3, 771–789.Search in Google Scholar

Graham, M. (2011): Disintermediation, Altered Chains and Altered Geographies. The Internet in the Thai Silk Industry. In: The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, (45)1, 1–25.Search in Google Scholar

HDS/L (2016): Schuhe 2015. Die deutsche Schuhwirtschaft in Zahlen. Berlin.Search in Google Scholar

Heinemann, G. (2013): Digitale Revolution im Handel – steigende Handelsdynamik und disruptive Veränderung der Handelsstrukturen. In: Heinemann, G./Haug, K./Gehrckens, M. (Hrsg.): Digitalisierung des Handels mit ePace. Wiesbaden, 3–26.10.1007/978-3-658-01300-4_1Search in Google Scholar

Heinemann, G. (2018): Der neue Online-Handel. Geschäftsmodelle, Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce. 9. Aufl. Wiesbaden.10.1007/978-3-658-23686-1Search in Google Scholar

Heinemann, G. (2019): Konsumerisation von B2B – Angleichung des gewerblichen Online-Kaufs an den B2C-E-Commerce. In: Heinemann, G. et al. (Hrsg.): Handel mit Mehrwert. Digitaler Wandel in Märkten, Geschäftsmodellen und Geschäftssystemen. 1. Aufl., 153–170.10.1007/978-3-658-21692-4_6Search in Google Scholar

Heinemann, G./Glaser, L. (2019): Zalando wird kooperativ – das Partnerprogramm für Fashion-Marken und -Händler. In: Heinemann, G. et al. (Hrsg.): Handel mit Mehrwert. Digitaler Wandel in Märkten, Geschäftsmodellen und Geschäftssystemen. 1. Aufl., 275–296.10.1007/978-3-658-21692-4_12Search in Google Scholar

Henderson, J. et al. (2002): Global production networks and the analysis of economic development. In: Review of International Political Economy, (9)3, 436–464.10.1080/09692290210150842Search in Google Scholar

Herb, C./Neiberger, C. (2020): Konsumentenverhalten im Zeitalter der Digitalisierung. Das Beispiel des Schuhhandels. In: Berichte. Geographie und Landeskunde, (93)1–2, 11–34.Search in Google Scholar

Heron, T./Prado, P./West, C. (2018): Global Value Chains and the Governance of ‚Embedded‘ Food Commodities. The Case of Soy. In: Global Policy, (9)3, 29–37.10.1111/1758-5899.12611Search in Google Scholar

Hopkins, T. K./Wallerstein, I. (1977): Patterns of development of the modern world-system. In: Review (Fernand Braudel Center), (1)2, 11–145.Search in Google Scholar

Humphrey, J. (2018): Value chain governance in the age of platforms. Chiba. Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), IDE Discussion Paper, No. 714.Search in Google Scholar

Humphrey, J./Schmitz, H. (2002): How does insertion in global value chains affect upgrading in industrial clusters? In: Regional Studies, (36)9, 1017–1027.10.1080/0034340022000022198Search in Google Scholar

Kelle, U. (2017): Computergestützte Analyse qualitativer Daten. In: Flick, U./Kardorff, E. v./Steinke, I. (Hrsg.): Qualitative Forschung. Ein Handbuch. 12. Aufl. Reinbek bei Hamburg, 485–502.Search in Google Scholar

Kister, J. (2017): Von Wachstum und Werten. Globale Wertschöpfungsketten im Fairen Handel. Dissertation. Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck. Innsbruck.Search in Google Scholar

Korzeniewicz, R. P./Martin, W. (1994): The global distribution of commodity chains. In: Gereffi, G./Korzeniewicz, M. (Eds.): Commodity chains and global capitalism. Westport, Conn, 67–91.Search in Google Scholar

Langley, P./Leyshon, A. (2017): Platform capitalism: The intermediation and capitalization of digital economic circulation. In: Finance and Society, (3)1, 11–31.10.2218/finsoc.v3i1.1936Search in Google Scholar

Laplume, A. O./Petersen, B./Pearce, J. M. (2016): Global value chains from a 3D printing perspective. In: Journal of International Business Studies, (47)5, 595–609.10.1057/jibs.2015.47Search in Google Scholar

Lechner, C. et al. (2020): Supplier evolution in global value chains and the new brand game from an attention‐based view. In: Global Strategy Journal, (46)3, 75.10.1002/gsj.1381Search in Google Scholar

Lee, J. (2010): Global commodity chains and global value chains. In: Denemark, R. A. (Ed.): The international studies encyclopedia. Chichester, 2987–3006.10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.013.201Search in Google Scholar

Li, F./Frederick, S./Gereffi, G. (2019): E-Commerce and industrial upgrading in the Chinese apparel value chain. In: Journal of Contemporary Asia, (49)1, 24–53.10.1080/00472336.2018.1481220Search in Google Scholar

Mata, F. J./Quesada, A./Mata-Marin, G. (2016): Can e-commerce provide a solution to the coffee paradox? In: Mata, F. J./Pont, A. (Hrsg.): ICT for promoting human development and protecting the environment. Cham, 181–194.10.1007/978-3-319-44447-5_17Search in Google Scholar

Mayring, P. (2008): Einführung in die qualititative Sozialforschung. Eine Anleitung zu qualitativem Denken. 5. Aufl. Weinheim, Basel.Search in Google Scholar

Merk, J. (2004): Regulating the global athletic footwear industry: The collective worker in the product chain. In: van der Pjil, K./Assassi, L./Wigan, D. (Hrsg.): Global regulation: Managing crises after the imperial turn. Basingstoke, 128–141.Search in Google Scholar

Merk, J. (2008): Restructuring and Conflict in the Global Athletic Footwear Industry: Nike, Yue Yuen and Labour Codes of Conduct. In: Taylor, M. (Ed.): Global economy contested. Power and conflict across the international division of labour. London, 79–97.10.4324/9780203927243.pt2Search in Google Scholar

Nadvi, K. (2008): Global standards, global governance and the organization of global value chains. In: Journal of Economic Geography, (8)3, 323–343.10.1093/jeg/lbn003Search in Google Scholar

Nadvi, K. (2011): Labour standards and technological upgrading. Competitive challenges in the global football industry. In: International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, (4)1/2/3, 235–257.Search in Google Scholar

Nike Inc. (2019): Where Nike products are made. http://manufacturingmap.nikeinc.com/# (04.05.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Parnreiter, C. (2017): Global Cities, globale Wertschöpfungsketten und wirtschaftliche Governance. Konzeptionelle Überlegungen und eine Untersuchung der Rolle Mexico Citys. In: Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, (61)2, 65–79.Search in Google Scholar

Ponte, S./Gibbon, P. (2005): Quality standards, conventions and the governance of global value chains. In: Economy and Society, (34)1, 1–31.10.1080/0308514042000329315Search in Google Scholar

Ponte, S./Sturgeon, T. (2014): Explaining governance in global value chains. A modular theory-building effort. In: Review of International Political Economy, (21)1, 195–223.Search in Google Scholar

Puma SE (2014): Geschäftsbericht 2013. Herzogenaurach. https://about.puma.com/-/media/files/pdf/reportings/gb-2013.ashx (23.09.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Puma SE (2015): Geschäftsbericht 2014. Herzogenaurach. https://about.puma.com/-/media/files/pdf/reportings/puma_geschaeftsbericht_2014.ashx (23.09.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Puma SE (2020a): Geschäftsbericht 2019. Herzogenaurach. https://about.puma.com/-/media/files/pdf/puma_geschaeftsbericht_2019.ashx (04.05.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Puma SE (2020b): PUMA Global Core Factory List 2019. https://about.puma.com/-/media/files/pdf/sustainability/social/puma-global-core-fty-list-2020_update-20200330.ashx (05.05.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Rehnberg, M./Ponte, S. (2018): From smiling to smirking? 3D printing, upgrading and the restructuring of global value chains. In: Global Networks, (18)1, 57–80.10.1111/glob.12166Search in Google Scholar

Rodrik, D. (2018): New Technologies, Global Value Chains, and the Developing Economies. Pathways for Prosperity Commission Background Paper Series No.1. Oxford. https://drodrik.scholar.harvard.edu/files/dani-rodrik/files/new_technologies_global_value_chains_developing_economies.pdf (31.07.2020).10.3386/w25164Search in Google Scholar

Sarkar, M. B./Butler, B./Steinfield, C. (1995): Intermediaries and Cybermediaries. In: Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, (1)3.Search in Google Scholar

Sarkar, M. B./Butler, B./Steinfield, C. (1998): Cybermediaries in electronic marketspace. Toward Theory Building. In: Journal of Business Research, (41)3, 215–221.Search in Google Scholar

Schamp, E. W. (2005): Decline of the district, renewal of firms. An evolutionary approach to footwear production in the Pirmasens area, Germany. In: Environment and Planning A, (37)4, 617–634.Search in Google Scholar

Schamp, E. W. (2008): Globale Wertschöpfungsketten. Umbau von Nord-Süd-Beziehungen in der Weltwirtschaft. In: Geographische Rundschau (60)9, 4–11.Search in Google Scholar

Schamp, E. W. (2016): Fashion industries on the move. Spatial restructuring of the footwear sector in the enlarged European Union. In: Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, (60)4, 155–170.Search in Google Scholar

Schmitz, H. (2006): Learning and earning in global garment and footwear chains. In: The European Journal of Development Research, (18)4, 546–571.10.1080/09578810601070688Search in Google Scholar

Schmitz, H./Knorringa, P. (2000): Learning from global buyers. In: Journal of Development Studies, (37)2, 177–205.10.1080/713600073Search in Google Scholar

Sen, R./King, R. C. (2003): Revisit the debate on Intermediation, Disintermediation and Reintermediation due to e-commerce. In: Electronic Markets, (13)2, 153–162.10.1080/1019678032000067181Search in Google Scholar

Shoniregun, C. A. (2004): Is cybermediation really the future or risk? In: International Journal of Electronic Business, (2)6, 644–673.10.1504/IJEB.2004.006130Search in Google Scholar

Spence, M. (2019): Foreword. In: World Trade Organization (Hrsg.): Technological innovation, supply chain trade, and workers in a globalized world. Global value chains development report 2019. Washington, D.C., v.Search in Google Scholar

Tokatli, N./Wrigley, N./Kizilgün, Ö. (2008): Shifting global supply networks and fast fashion: made in Turkey for Marks & Spencer. In: Global Networks, (8)3, 261–280.10.1111/j.1471-0374.2008.00195.xSearch in Google Scholar

Wigand, R. T. (2020): Whatever happened to disintermediation? In: Electronic Markets, (30)1, 39–47.10.1007/s12525-019-00389-0Search in Google Scholar

Williamson, O. E. (1985): The economic institutions of capitalism. Firms, markets, relational contracting. New York, NY.10.1007/978-3-8349-9320-5_6Search in Google Scholar

Wolf, T./Strohschen, J.-H. (2018): Digitalisierung. Definition und Reife. In: Informatik-Spektrum, (41)1, 56–64.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-10-19
Accepted: 2021-06-24
Published Online: 2021-11-27
Published in Print: 2021-11-25

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston