Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (O) June 29, 2020

Shock wave induced defect engineering on structural and optical properties of pure and dye doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

Sivakumar Aswathappa , Eniya Palaniyasan , Sahaya Jude Dhas Sathiyadhas , Kalyana Sundar Jayaperumal , Sivaprakash Paramasivam , Arumugam Sonachalam and Martin Britto Dhas Sathiyadhas Amalapushpam EMAIL logo


Based on the importance of the shock recovery experiments, the authors report the structural and optical properties of pure and 0.001 M dye-doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals for virgin and shock wave loaded samples. Rhodamine B and Methylene blue dyes are selected as dopants to be doped with KDP crystal for the present investigation. The test crystals of pure and doped KDP crystals are grown by slow evaporation technique and cut and polished crystals of (200) face are used for the present investigation. Table-top pressure driven shock tube is utilized for the shock wave generation and the used functional Mach number is 1.7. Virgin and shock wave loaded test crystals’ surface morphology, structural properties and optical transmissions are observed using optical microscope, powder X-ray diffractometer and UV-Visible spectrometer, respectively. Crystalline nature and optical transmission of pure and doped KDP crystals are found to have reduced by the impact of shock waves. It occurs due to the enhancement of defect concentration on the surface of the test crystals. From the observed results, we assert that the pure KDP crystal is relatively more stable to shock wave induced damage compared to doped KDP crystals as reflected by structural and optical studies.

Corresponding author: Martin Britto Dhas Sathiyadhas Amalapushpam, Department of Physics, Abdul Kalam Research Center, Sacred Heart College, Tirupattur, Vellore, 635601, Tamil Nadu, India, E-mail:

Award Identifier / Grant number: SR/FST/College-2017/130 (c)


The authors thank Department of Science and Technology (DST), India for funding through DST-FIST programme (SR/FST/College-2017/130 (c)).

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: The authors thank Department of Science and Technology (DST), India for funding through DST-FIST programme (SR/FST/College-2017/130 (c)).

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


1. Wang, J., Yu, H., Wu, Y., Boughton, R. Recent developments in functional crystals in China. Engineering 2015, 1, 192–210; in Google Scholar

2. Anandha Babu, G., Subramaniyan, R., Bhaumik, I., Ganesamoorthy, S., Ramasamy, P., Gupta, P. K. Growth and investigation of 0.80Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 0.20K0.5Bi0.5TiO3 lead-free single crystal. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 2014, 185, 134–137; in Google Scholar

3. Nils, C. F., Hopkins, F. K., Obmer, M. C. Nonlinear optical crystal development for laser wavelength shifting at AFRL materials directorate. SPIE Porc. 1999, 3793, 1–7; in Google Scholar

4. Michael, L. V. Photonic systems for antenna applications. IEEE Proc. 1994, 36, 30–38; in Google Scholar

5. Song, B., Nelson, K., Lipinski, R., Bignell, J., Ulrich, G. B., George, E. P. Dynamic high-temperature tensile characterization of an iridium alloy with Kolsky tension bar techniques. J. Dyn. Behav. Mater. 2015, 1, 290–298; in Google Scholar

6. Elena, V. B. High-pressure studies of the hydrogen bond networks in molecular crystals. J. Mol. Struct. 2004, 700, 151–155; in Google Scholar

7. Kalaiarasi, S., Sivakumar, A., Dhas, S. M. B., Jose, M. Shock wave induced anatase to rutile TiO2 phase transition using pressure driven shock tube. Mater. Lett. 2018, 219, 72–75; in Google Scholar

8. Amina, G. A. M., Spyrou, N. M. Study of gamma-radiation-induced optical effects in Ge–Se–Cd for possible industrial dosimetric applications. Rad. Phys. Chem. 2005, 72, 419–422; in Google Scholar

9. Sivakumar, A., Sahaya Jude Dhas, S., Balachandar, S., Dhas, M. B. Effect of shock waves on structural and dielectric properties of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystal. Z. Kristallogr. 2019, 234, 557–567; in Google Scholar

10. Kanel, G. I., Bogatch, A. A., Razorenov, S. V., Chen, Z. Transformation of shock compression pulses in glass due to the failure wave phenomena. J. Appl. Phys. 2012, 92, 5045–5042; in Google Scholar

11. Mohotti, D., Ngo, T., Mendis, P., Raman, S. N. Polyurea coated composite aluminium plates subjected to high velocity projectile impact. Mater. Design 2013, 52, 1–16; in Google Scholar

12. Sivakumar, A., Suresh, S., Balachandar, S., Thirupathy, J., Kalyana Sundar, J., Martin Britto Dhas, S. A. Effect of shock waves on thermophysical properties of ADP and KDP crystals. Optic. Laser. Tech. 2019, 111, 284–289; in Google Scholar

13. Sivakumar, A., Suresh, S., Anto Pradeep, J., Balachandar, S., Martin Britto Dhas, S. A. Effect of shock waves on dielectric properties of KDP crystal. J. Eelect. Mater. 2018, 47, 4831–4839; in Google Scholar

14. Zaki, M. F. Gamma-induced modification on optical band gap of CR-39 SSNTD. Braz. J. Phys. 2008, 38, 558–562; in Google Scholar

15. Brignon, A., Richard, S., Gusarov, A., Berghmans, F., Georges, M., Thibert, T., Lien, Y. A solid-state phase conjugate mirror for space Lidar systems. Appl. Optic. 2007, 44, 5329–5335; in Google Scholar

16. Kucheyeva, S. O., Felter, T. E. Structural disorder produced in KH2PO4 by light-ion bombardment. J. Appl. Phys. 2004, 95, 8475; in Google Scholar

17. Sivakumar, A., Saranraj, A., Sahaya Jude Dhas, S., Martin Britto Dhas, S. A. Shock wave induced enhancement of optical properties of benzil crystal. Mater. Res. Express 2019, 6, 046205; in Google Scholar

18. Sivakumar, A., Saranraj, A., Sahaya Jude Dhas, S., Jose, M., Martin Britto Dhas, S. A. Shock wave-induced defect engineering for investigation on optical properties of triglycine sulfate crystal. Opt. Eng. 2019, 58, 077104. in Google Scholar

19. Zhukova, A. N., Sidorovb, N. S., Palnichenkob, A. V., Avdonina, V. V., Shakhrai, D. V. Influence of shock-wave pressure up to 65GPa on the crystal structure and superconducting properties of MgB2. High Press. Res. 2009, 29, 414–421; in Google Scholar

20. Fatyanov, O. V., Webb, R. L., Gupta, Y. M. Optical transmission through inelastically deformed shocked sapphire: stress and crystal orientation effects. J. Appl. Phys. 2005, 97, 123529; in Google Scholar

21. Donald, B. L. A shock induced phase transformation in bismuth. J. Appl. Phys. 1967, 38, 1541–1546; in Google Scholar

22. Fahrbach, H. U., Eberhagen, A. Radiation-induced transmission loss in optical materials at infrared wavelengths. Radiat. Eff. Defect Solid 1982, 65, 127–130; in Google Scholar

23. Ahlam, M. A., Ravishankar, M. N., Vijayan, N., Govindaraj, G., Upadhyaya, V., Gnana Prakash, A. P. The effect of Co-60 gamma irradiation on optical properties of some nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystals. J. Opt. 2012, 41, 158–166; in Google Scholar

24. Gaffara, M. A., Abu El-Fadl, A., Abousehly, A. M., Mostafa, M. M. Doping and irradiation effects on the optical band gap of potassium tetrachlorozincate single crystals. Radiat. Eff. Defect Solid 2004, 159, 25–35; in Google Scholar

25. Urtiew, P. A. Effect of shock loading on transparency of sapphire crystals. J. Appl. Phys. 1974, 45, 3490–3492; in Google Scholar

26. Bhagavannarayana, G., Parthiban, S., Meenakshisundaram, S. An interesting correlation between crystalline perfection and second harmonic generation efficiency on KCl- and oxalic acid-doped ADP crystals. Cryst. Growth Design 2008, 8, 445–451; in Google Scholar

27. Rajesh, P., Ramasamy, P. Optical, dielectric and microhardness studies on (100) directed ADP crystal. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 2009, 74, 210–213; in Google Scholar

28. Chen, R. H., Yen, C.-C., Shern, C. S., Fukami, T. Impedance spectroscopy and dielectric analysis in KH2PO4 single crystal. Solid State Ionics 2006, 177, 2857–2864; in Google Scholar

29. Guo, D., Zu, X., Yang, G., Huang, J., Wang, F., Liu, H., Xiang, X., Jiang, X. Gamma irradiation effect on optical and dielectric properties of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. Optic. Mater. 2016, 54, 238–244; in Google Scholar

30. Shetty, P. K., Vinaya, P. P., Nakshatri, R., Prabhu, A. N. Effect of gamma and neutron irradiation on structural and optical properties of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals. Optik 2018, 156, 224–230; in Google Scholar

31. Zhang, L., Wu, Y., Liu, Y., Li, H. DFT study of single water molecule adsorption on the (100) and (101) surfaces of KH2PO4. RSC Adv. 2017, 7, 26170–26178; in Google Scholar

32. Shaikh, R. N., Anis, Mohd., Shirsat, M. D., Hussaini, S. S. Study on optical properties of l-valine doped ADP crystal. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 2015, 136, 1243–1248; in Google Scholar

33. Velikhov, Y., Pritula, I., Ganina, I., Kolybayeva, M., Puzikov, V., Levchenko, A. N. Growth and properties of dye doped KDP crystals. Cryst. Res. Technol. 2007, 42, 27–33; in Google Scholar

34. Ibrahim, A. M., Soliman, L. I. Effect of Gamma Radiation on optical and electrical properties of Se1-xTex. Rad. Phy. Chem. 1998, 53, 469–475; in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-02-18
Accepted: 2020-04-27
Published Online: 2020-06-29
Published in Print: 2020-07-28

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 31.1.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow