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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 6, 2020

Natural antioxidants in emulsions O/W

  • Soukaina El-Guendouz , Smail Aazza , Susana Anahi Dandlen , Nessrine Majdoub , Badiaa Lyoussi , Sara Raposo , Vera Gomes , Vassya Bankova , Milena Popova , Dulce Antunes and Maria Graça Miguel EMAIL logo


This study compared the capacity of propolis extract (PE) and thyme waste extract (TWE) to prevent the oxidation of oil in water (O/W) emulsion, as well as their impact on emulsion apparent viscosity (AV) in the presence of wheat germ and almond oils as lipid phase. For this, central composite design (CCD) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed. Oxidation process was monitored by evaluating the formation of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products, at the same time the AV behavior was determined evaluating consistency index and flow behavior index. The results revealed that the increase of PE% and TWE% decreases TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances) and hydroperoxides formation. Viscosity increases with the rise of TWE% over (0.04%), whereas lower concentrations of PE% decreases it. Those results have been confirmed in the PCA analysis. TWE showed higher resistance to oxidation, although PE was more effective as antioxidant than TWE.

Corresponding author: Maria Graça Miguel, Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal, E-mail:


The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia—FCT; Portugal, under the projects the Project UIDB/05183/2020 and UID/MAR/00350/2013.

  1. Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Received: 2020-01-10
Accepted: 2020-04-09
Published Online: 2020-05-06
Published in Print: 2020-09-25

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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