This study aimed to investigate the wound-healing efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and pomegranate seed extract oil combined with curcumin as an anti inflammatory agent. A series of experiments were carried out to determine effective concentrations for H. perforatum oil, pomegranate seed extract oil, and curcumin. Ibuprofen was used as a positive control. The wound-healing effects of the applied compounds were tested according to the migration experiment model performed in HaCaT cells. A real-time cell analyzer (xCELLigence) was used to determine the cytotoxic/proliferative effects of H. perforatum, pomegranate seed oil, ibuprofen, and curcumin in HaCaT cells alone and their combined use at specified concentrations. After examining the noncytotoxic concentrations of H. perforatum oil, pomegranate seed oil, curcumin, and ibuprofen, migration experiments were performed to examine the wound healing properties. According to the results, the wound-healing efficacy of curcumin and H. perforatum combination was better than ibuprofen combinations. Also, according to the results, the wound-healing efficacy of curcumin and pomegranate seed oil combination was better than ibuprofen combinations. It was concluded that both oils had improved wound-healing properties in combination with curcumin or Ibuprofen.
We thank to Atabay Pharmaceuticals and Fine Chemicals Inc. for providing drug substance. Also, we thank to Seda Dökücü and Furkan Kağan for their help on experiments.
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Conflict of interest statement: There are no conflicts of interest.
2. Tepebaşı, MY, Calapoğlu, NŞ. Yara iyileşmesinin hücresel ve moleküler mekanizması. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Tıp Dergisi 2016;23:140–6.Search in Google Scholar
3. Rodero, MP, Khosrotehrani, K. Skin wound healing modulation by macrophages. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2010;3:643–53.Search in Google Scholar
4. Tsuruta, D, Gree, KJ, Getsios, S, Jones, JCR. The barrier function of skin: how to keep a tight lid on water loss. Trends Cell Biol 2002;12:355–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0962-8924(02)02316-4.Search in Google Scholar
5. Kaustabh, G, Clark, RAF, Lanza, R, Langer, R, Vacanti, J. Wound repair. Principles of tissue engineering, 3. Basım. Burlington: Academic Press; 2007:1149–66 pp.Search in Google Scholar
6. Zhong, SP, Zhang, YZ, Lim, CT. Tissue scaffolds for skin wound healing and dermal reconstruction. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010;2:510–25. https://doi.org/10.1002/wnan.100.Search in Google Scholar
8. Kumar, B, Vijayakumar, M, Govindarajan, R, Pushpangadan, P. Ethnopharmacological approaches to wound-healing-exploring medicinal plants of India. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;114:103–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.010.Search in Google Scholar
10. Bombardelli, E, Morazzoni, E. Hypericum perforatum. Fitoterapia 1995;66:43–68.Search in Google Scholar
11. Schempp, CM, Muller, KA, Winghofer, B, Schopf, E, Simon, JC. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). A plant with relevance for dermatology. Der Hautarzt 2002;53:316–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00105-001-0317-5.Search in Google Scholar
12. Sosa, S, Pace, R, Bornancin, A, Morazzoni, P, Riva, A, Tubaro, A, et al.. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and compounds from Hypericum perforatum L. J Pharm Pharmacol 2007;59:703–9. https://doi.org/10.1211/jpp.59.5.0011.Search in Google Scholar
13. Jadoon, S, Karim, S, Bin Asad, MH, Akram, MR, Khan, AK, Malik, A, et al.. Anti-aging potential of phytoextract loaded-pharmaceutical creams for human skin cell longetivity. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2015;2015:1–17. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/709628.Search in Google Scholar
14. Bogdan, C, Iurian, S, Tomuta, I, Moldovan, M. Improvement of skin condition in striae distensae: development, characterization and clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product containing Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract. Drug Des Dev Ther 2017;11:521–31. https://doi.org/10.2147/dddt.s128470.Search in Google Scholar
15. He, L, Xu, H, Liu, X, He, W, Yuan, F, Hou, Z, et al.. Identification of phenolic compounds from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed residues and investigation into their antioxidant capacities by HPLC–ABTS+ assay. Food Res Int 2011;44:1161–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.05.023.Search in Google Scholar
16. Aslam, MN, Lansky, EP, Varani, J. Pomegranate as a cosmeceutical source: pomegranate fractions promote proliferation and procollagen synthesis and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-1 production in human skin cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103:311–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.07.027.Search in Google Scholar
17. Aggarwal, BB, Surh, YJ, Shishodia, S. The molecular targets and therapeutic uses of curcumin in health and disease. In: Aggarwal, BB, editor. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. New York: Springer Science + Business Media; 2007:1–480 pp.10.1007/978-0-387-46401-5Search in Google Scholar
20. Akram, M, Shahab-Uddin, AA, Usmanghani, K, Hannan, A, Mohiuddin, E, Asif, M. Curcuma longa and curcumin: a review article. Rom J Biol-Plant Biol 2010;55:65–70.Search in Google Scholar
22. Albuz, Ö. Günlük yaşamda gıda takviyesi olarak kullanılan zencefil, zerdeçal ve karanfilin sitotoksik etkilerinin araştırılması. Kocatepe Vet J 2019;12:351–6.Search in Google Scholar
25. Hudson, LG, McCawley, LJ. Contributions of the epidermal growth factor receptor to keratinocyte motility. Microsc Res Tech 1998;43:444–55. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0029(19981201)43:5<444::aid-jemt10>3.0.co;2-c.10.1002/(SICI)1097-0029(19981201)43:5<444::AID-JEMT10>3.0.CO;2-CSearch in Google Scholar
27. Koivisto, L, Jiang, G, Häkkinen, L, Chan, B, Larjava, H. HaCaT keratinocyte migration is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and glycogen synthase kinase-3α. Exp Cell Res 2006;312:2791–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.05.009.Search in Google Scholar
28. Kioka, N, Ito, T, Yamashita, H, Uekawa, N, Umemoto, T, Motoyoshi, S, et al.. Crucial role of vinexin for keratinocyte migration in vitro and epidermal wound healing in vivo. Exp Cell Res 2010;316:1728–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.03.019.Search in Google Scholar
29. Liang, CC, Park, AY, Guan, JL. In vitro scratch assay: a convenient and inexpensive method for analysis of cell migration in vitro. Nat Protoc 2007;2:329. https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2007.30.Search in Google Scholar
30. Isacchi, B, Bergonzi, MC, Carnevali, F, van der Esch, SA, Vincieri, FF, Bilia, AR. Analysis and stability of the constituents of St. John’s wort oils prepared with different methods. J Pharmaceut Biomed Anal 2007;45:756–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2007.08.025.Search in Google Scholar
31. Phan, TT, See, P, Lee, ST, Chan, SY. Protective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage on skin cells in vitro: its implication for wound healing. J Trauma 2001;51:927–31. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005373-200111000-00017.Search in Google Scholar
The online version of this article offers supplementary material (https://doi.org/10.1515/znc-2020-0301).
© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston