Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (O) August 30, 2019

Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch-Bio-Based Epoxy Resin and their Impact on Mechanical Properties

  • Tariq Aziz EMAIL logo , Hong Fan , Farman Ullah Khan , Roh Ullah , Fazal Haq , Mudassir Iqbal and Asmat Ullah


In the current research, we observed numerous suggestions are promoting the use of bio-based epoxy resins, replacing the petroleum-based products like Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A type epoxy resin DGEBA. With the passage of time, the impending challenges include preparation of environmentally-friendly epoxy with minimum toxic side effect and improved properties. Therefore, we describe a very useful method for preparing new silicone-bridged dimethyl siloxane monomers in high quantity, derived from naturally occurring eugenol. By putting the methyl siloxane, computed with different chain lengths into their molecular backbone. Such epoxy monomers have different molecular structure with high purity. This dimethyl siloxane epoxy, with lower viscosity than commercial DGEBA epoxy, has superior thermal properties, which were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Modification of CMS increases the hydrophilicity. Bio-based epoxy (self-prepared) resin improved adhesive properties, with the help of modified CMS. This study presents a very easy and effective chemical modification to enhance interfacial adhesion composites with superior properties.

  1. Conflict of Interest Statement: We have no conflict of interest.


1. H. M. Cai, G. J. Chen, C. Y. Peng, L. Y. Xu, Z. Z. Zhang, F. Ke, X. C. Wan, RSC Adv. 5 (2015) 101819.10.1039/C5RA18167DSearch in Google Scholar

2. L. Blemur, T. C. Le, L. Marcocci, P. Pietrangeli, M. A. Mateescu, Biotechnol. Appl. Bioc. 63 (2016) 344.10.1002/bab.1369Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

3. L. N. Kan, Q. J. Zhao, J. Q. Hu, Y. W. Wu, J. Ouyang, J. Food Process. Pres. 41 (2017) 1.Search in Google Scholar

4. W. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Q. Cai, B. Han, D. Y. Zhao, RSC Adv. 6 (2016) 67260.10.1039/C6RA10500ASearch in Google Scholar

5. K. M. Minaev, D. O. Martynova, A. S. Zakharov, R. R. Sagitov, A. A. Ber, S. Ulyanova, Iop C. Ser. Earth Env. 43 (2016) 1.Search in Google Scholar

6. R. Naderali, A. Jafari, H. Motiei, Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 120 (2015) 681.10.1007/s00340-015-6183-0Search in Google Scholar

7. H. Shi, Y. Yin, S. Jiao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131 (2014) 1.10.1002/app.41016Search in Google Scholar

8. T. Spychaj, K. Wilpiszewska, M. Zdanowicz, Starch-Starke 65 (2013) 22.10.1002/star.201200159Search in Google Scholar

9. W. Tongdeesoontorn, L. J. Mauer, S. Wongruong, P. Sriburi, P. Rachtanapun, Chem. Cent. J. 5 (2011) 1.10.1186/1752-153X-5-1Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

10. E. Zhang, J. Yang, W. Liu, Z. Phys. Chem. 232 (2018) 1707.10.1515/zpch-2018-1133Search in Google Scholar

11. G. Dalei, S. Das, S. P. Das, RSC Adv. 9 (2019) 1705.10.1039/C8RA09161GSearch in Google Scholar

12. L. L. Wang, R. M. Li, C. L. Wang, J. Z. Shao, M. H. Wu, W. Wang, Cellulose 24 (2017) 3545.10.1007/s10570-017-1346-2Search in Google Scholar

13. X. Y. Wang, W. L. Feng, W. R. Wang, W. Wang, L. J. Zhao, Y. Li, Res. Chem. Intermediat. 44 (2018) 1161.10.1007/s11164-017-3159-1Search in Google Scholar

14. H. K. Zhang, C. Xu, Y. T. Lu, Y. H. Wang, F. Z. Tan, Y. Li, J. Macromol. Sci. B 56 (2017) 595.10.1080/00222348.2017.1356137Search in Google Scholar

15. T. Watermann, D. Sebastiani, Z. Phys. Chem. 232 (2018) 989.10.1515/zpch-2017-1011Search in Google Scholar

16. A. Jamshaid, J. Iqbal, A. Hamid, M. Ghauri, N. Muhammad, A. Nasrullah, S. Rafiq, N. Samad, Z. Phys. Chem. (2019). doi: 10.1515/zpch-2018-1287 (Epub ahead of print).Search in Google Scholar

17. A. Joorabloo, M. T. Khorasani, H. Adeli, Z. Mansoori-Moghadam, A. Moghaddam, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 70 (2019) 253.10.1016/j.jiec.2018.10.022Search in Google Scholar

18. P. Sun, S. Yang, X. Sun, Y. Wang, L. Pan, H. Wang, X. Wang, J. Guo, C. Nie, Polymers 11 (2019) 1.Search in Google Scholar

19. H. Mousavipazhouh, M. Azadfallah, I. R. Jouybari, Maderas Cienc. Tecnol. 20 (2018) 703.Search in Google Scholar

20. R. Suriyatem, R. A. Auras, P. Rachtanapun, Ind. Crop. Prod. 122 (2018) 37.10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.05.047Search in Google Scholar

21. M. R. M. Hafiezal, K. Abdan, M. D. Azaman, Z. Z. Abidin, Z. M. Hanafee, Aip. Conf. Proc. 1885 (2017) 1.Search in Google Scholar

22. T. T. Li, X. Q. Liu, Y. H. Jiang, S. Q. Ma, J. Zhu, Iran. Polym. J. 25 (2016) 957.10.1007/s13726-016-0482-0Search in Google Scholar

23. S. Nikafshar, O. Zabihi, S. Hamidi, Y. Moradi, S. Barzegar, M. Ahmadi, M. Naebe, RSC Adv. 7 (2017) 8694.10.1039/C6RA27283ESearch in Google Scholar

24. T. Tsujimoto, K. Takeshita, H. Uyama, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 93 (2016) 1663.10.1007/s11746-016-2907-5Search in Google Scholar

25. C. Li, J. Y. Dai, X. Q. Liu, Y. H. Jiang, S. Q. Ma, J. Zhu, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 217 (2016) 1439.10.1002/macp.201600055Search in Google Scholar

26. R. Liu, X. P. Zhang, S. Gao, X. Y. Liu, Z. Wang, J. L. Yan, RSC Adv. 6 (2016) 52549.10.1039/C6RA09077JSearch in Google Scholar

27. C. Li, H. Fan, T. Aziz, C. Bittencourt, L. Wu, D.-Y. Wang, P. Dubois, ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 6 (2018) 8856.10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b01212Search in Google Scholar

28. J. Deng, X. Q. Liu, C. Li, Y. H. Jiang, J. Zhu, RSC Adv. 5 (2015) 15930.10.1039/C5RA00242GSearch in Google Scholar

29. Y. Wang, H. Li, X. D. Wang, H. Lei, J. C. Huo, RSC Adv. 6 (2016) 84187.10.1039/C6RA18347FSearch in Google Scholar

30. Y. Y. Han, M. Yu, L. J. Wang, Food Packag. Shelf 15 (2018) 35.10.1016/j.fpsl.2017.11.001Search in Google Scholar

31. P. Liu, W. Guo, Z. Jiang, H. Pu, C. Feng, X. Zhu, Y. Peng, A. Kuang, C. R. Little, J. Agr. Sci. 149 (2011) 159.10.1017/S0021859610001024Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

32. M. A. Perez, B. L. Rivas, S. Rodriguez-Llamazares, J. Chil. Chem. Soc. 58 (2013) 1643.10.4067/S0717-97072013000100030Search in Google Scholar

33. L. M. Bai, N. Bossa, F. S. Qu, J. Winglee, G. B. Li, K. Sun, H. Liang, M. R. Wiesner, Environ. Sci. Technol. 51 (2017) 253.10.1021/acs.est.6b04280Search in Google Scholar PubMed

34. R. Mustapha, A. R. Rahmat, R. A. Majid, S. N. H. Mustapha, Mater. Today Proc. 5 (2018) 21964.10.1016/j.matpr.2018.07.057Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-04-01
Accepted: 2019-08-07
Published Online: 2019-08-30
Published in Print: 2020-12-16

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 6.2.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow