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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (O) August 30, 2021

Lithium tracer diffusion in near stoichiometric LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

  • Daniel Uxa and Harald Schmidt EMAIL logo


The compound LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is used as novel cathode material for Li-ion batteries and represents a variant to replace conventional LiMn2O4. For a further improvement of battery materials it is necessary to understand kinetic processes at and in electrodes and the underlying diffusion of lithium that directly influences charging/discharging times, maximum capacities, and possible side reactions. In the present study Li tracer self-diffusion is investigated in polycrystalline sintered bulk samples of near stoichiometric LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with an average grain size of about 50–70 nm in the temperature range between 250 and 600 °C. For analysis, stable 6Li tracers are used in combination with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The tracer diffusivities can be described by the Arrhenius law with an activation enthalpy of (0.97 ± 0.05) eV, which is interpreted as the sum of the formation and migration energy of a thermally activated Li vacancy.

Corresponding author: Harald Schmidt, Institut für Metallurgie, Technische Universität Clausthal, AG Festkörperkinetik, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany; and Clausthaler Zentrum für Materialtechnik, Technische Universität Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, E-mail:
Dedicated to Paul Heitjans on the occasion of his 75th birthday.

Funding source: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Award Identifier / Grant number: SCHM 1569/33-1

Award Identifier / Grant number: INST 189/194-1 FUGG


The financial support is gratefully acknowledged. We are indebted to K. Meyer for XRD analysis, to G. Zander for ICP-OES analysis and to S. Lenk for SEM measurements. We dedicate this work to Prof. Dr. Paul Heitjans on the occasion of his 75th birthday.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: This work was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) – SCHM 1569/33-1; INST 189/194-1 FUGG.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Received: 2021-07-14
Accepted: 2021-08-18
Published Online: 2021-08-30
Published in Print: 2022-06-27

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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