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The translation into Catalan of marked structures in King Lear

Montserrat Forcadell Guinjoan

Abstract

Different languages have different means (or structures) to either foreground or background the informational (thematic-rhematic) import of the constituents involved in their sentences. English and Catalan differ substantially, since these two languages resort to two different types of strategies to encode such pragmatic information. Whereas in English thematic (old) information may be left deaccented inside the clause, in Catalan it must be moved to a peripheral (dislocated) position in the structure. This might trigger the binding of a clitic in the clause to satisfy the requirements of the verb. Hence, in order to maintain the quality of the original text, translators should be aware of the equivalences that marked structures have in the target language so as to avoid the weakening of the quality of the target text. If the choice of marked structures is relevant in the original text, that choice should be reflected in (quality) target texts as well. To approach how marked structures are treated in translations, four strategies (which are either contrastive and/or involve clitic binding in Catalan) will be analysed in a fragment of Shakespeare’s King Lear.

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Annex. The data

Occurrence 1 → accent-shift

(Kent: I cannot conceive you)

Gloucester: Sir, this young fellow’s MOTHER could; [10s.][22]

Translation 1: exclamative

Be prou que va poguer la seva mare.

Translation 2: canonical sentence

Misser, la mare d’aquest senyor era potenta.

Translation 3: pseudo-cleft

La que sí va poder concebre va ser la mare d’aquest xicot, senyor.

Translation 4: pseudo-cleft

Doncs la que sí va concebre va ser la mare d’aquest xicot,

senyor.

Translation 5: (subject) left-dislocation

Doncs la mare d’aquest jove sí que va poder.

Translation 6: (subject) left-dislocation

La seva mare sí que em va seguir.

Occurrence 2 → non-focus preposing

Lear [pointing out an area on the map] Of all these bounds,

even form this line to this,

With shadowy forest and with champains riched,

With plenteous rivers and wide-skirted meads,

We make thee lady. [58–62]

Translation 1: two canonical sentences

Veus, des d’aquest fita a n’aquesta altra,

aquest ample domini ple de boscos ombrius y de riquíssimes

planuries, de fecondes riberes y amples prades? Tot es teu;

Translation 2: cliticless left-dislocation (faulty)

De tots aquests termens, just des d’eixa ratlla an aquesta, ab planes enriquits y

Ombrivoles selves, ab curullosos rius y prades d’allunyats margens, te faig senyora.

Translation 3: cliticless left-dislocation (faulty)

De tots aquests confins, d’aquesta ratlla a aquella,

plens de boscos ombrosos, planes fèrtils,

rius cabdalosos i prades extenses,

et proclamo senyora,

Translation 4: cliticless left-dislocation (faulty)

De tots aquests confins, d’aquesta ratlla a aquesta,

plens de boscos ombrosos, planes fèrtils,

rius cabdalosos I prades extenses,

et proclamo senyora;

Translation 5: cliticless left-dislocation (faulty)

D’aquesta ratlla fins aquesta,

de tot aquest terreny de boscos ombrejats,

de planures obertes, rius pletòrics

i prades sense limit, et nomeno senyora.

Translation 6: left-dislocation

Des d’aquesta ratlla fins a aquesta, i fins a aquesta,

amb boscos frondosos i ric en planures obertes,

amb rius pletòrics i espaiosos

aiguamolls, nosaltres te’n fem senyora.

Occurrence 3 → non-focus preposing

Lear To thine and Albany’s issue

Be this perpetual. [62s.]

Translation 1: canonical sentence

que’ls teus fills ho posseeixin perpètuament, oh Goneril!,

Translation 2: canonical sentence

Resti açò vinculat a la genera teva y d’Albania.

Translation 3: canonical sentence

i que això valgui

a perpetuïtat pels descendents

d’Abany i teus.

Translation 4: sentence fragment

(et proclamo senyora;) pels descendents

d’Albany i teus, a perpetuïtat.

Translation 5: canonical sentence

Que els descendents del duc d’Albany i teus

en siguin amos a perpetuïtat.

Translation 6: canonical sentence

Sigui per sempre per als descendents

teus i d’Albany.

Occurrence 4 → non-focus preposing

Kent To plainness honour’s

bound,

When majesty stoops to folly. [143s.]

Translation 1: canonical sentence

L’honor s’obliga a la franquesa axí que la follia s’ampar del sobirà.

Translation 2: canonical sentence

Honor es deguda a la senzillesa quan la magestat s’ajup fina a la follia.

Translation 3: canonical sentence

L’honor s’ha de sotmetre a la sinceritat,

fins i tot quan la reialesa cau en la follia.

Translation 4: canonical sentence

Quan la majestat cau en la follia,

l’honor s’ha de sotmetre a la sinceritat.

Translation 5: canonical sentence

L’honor no sap fer embuts

quan el ceptre cedeix a la folia.

Translation 6: canonical sentence

Et penses

que el deure té por de parlar

quan el poder s’ajup a l’afalac?

Occurrence 5 → non-focus preposing

Kent My life I never held but as a pawn

To wage against they enemies(, no fear to lose it,

Thy safety being the motive.) [149–152]

Translation 1: left-dislocation

Senyor, la meva vida contra’ls teus enemics l’he exposat sempre(, y ara, senyor no haig

pas de temê pèrdrerla quan ho exigeix la teva salut.)

Translation 2: left-dislocation

Ma vida no l’he tinguda mai sinó com un peó, pera empenyorar-me-la contra tos

enemics(: ni’m raca de perdre-la essent lo motiu ton bé.)

Translation 3: canonical sentence

Mai he considerat la meva vida

en res més que no sigui una penyora

per posar en joc contra els teus enemics.

Translation 4: canonical sentence

Mai no he considerat la meva vida

en res més que no sigui una penyora

contra els teus enemics.

Translation 5: canonical sentence

La meva vida no ha estat mai,

per mi, més que un peó per moure’l

sontra els teus enemics(, i no tinc por de perdre-la

si es mou per protegir-te.)

Translation 6: left-dislocation

La meva vida mai no l’he tingut

per res més que un peó per arriscar

contra els teus enemics.

Occurrence 6 → left-dislocation

Cordelia (I yet beseech your majesty,

If for I want that glib and oily art,

To speak and purpose not, since) what I well intend

I’ll do’t before I speak (– that you make known

It is no vicious blot, murder, or foulness ...) [219–222]

Translation 1: canonical sentence

(Si es que la meva falta sols consisteix en

que) no he sabut esser hipòcrita per’ dir lo que no sento(, si el meu pecat es l’havê

estat sincera ...)

Translation 2: left-dislocation

(Suplic encara vostra magestat, si la raó de ma ofensa es la manca d’aquesta art

llisquivola y oliosa pera palar séns raonar—que) jo tot bé que’m propose lo faig abans de parlar(,—que feu assaber que no es taca viciosa, o altra infamia, ni acció impura ...)

Translation 3: canonical sentence

[si és perquè jo no tinc aquell art oliós

brilliant i poc sincer

de dir les coses que no penso fer]

(si les vull fer, les faig abans de dir-les),

[que sàpiga tothom (...)]

Translation 4: canonical sentence

[si no tinc aquell art oliós i xerraire

de dir les coses que no penso fer]

(si les vull fer, les faig abans de dir-les),

[que sàpiga tothom (...)]

Translation 5: left-dislocation

(si tot ve del fet que em manca l’art

untuós i xerraire de dir allò que no penso,

perquè) allò que em proposo ho faig abans de parlar.

Translation 6: canonical sentence

(Així tot suplico a vostra majestat,

sense aquell art bocamoll i oliós

de parlar amb despropòsit—)

ja que la meva bona intenció és fer abans de dir—,

(que feu saber (...))

Occurrence 7 → non-focus preposing

France Thee and thy virtues here I seize upon. [248]

Translation 1: canonical sentence

(...) tu y tas virtuts sóu meves.

Translation 2: cliticless left-dislocation (faulty)

Tu y tes virtuts ara faig meves.

Translation 3: cliticless left-dislocation (faulty)

(Bellíssima Cordèlia...)

tu i les teves virtuts, jo vull fer meves.

Translation 4: left-dislocation

(Bellíssima Cordèlia...)

tu i les teves virtuts, les vull fer meves.

Translation 5: canonical sentence

ara i aquí jo et prenc, amb les teves virtuts.

Translation 6: canonical sentence

et prenc aquí a tu

i a les teves virtuts.

Occurrence 8 → non-focus preposing

Cordelia To your professéd I commit him; [268]

Translation 1: canonical sentence

(Oh! Vos prego que estimeu força, força!, al nostre pare;)

tal com heu dit suara heu d’estimarlo.

Translation 2: canonical sentence

(Porteu-vos bé ab ell,) lo coman a vostres cors tan esplicits.

Translation 3: canonical sentence

(Estimeu molt el pare,) l’encomano

a l’afecte que heu dit que li teníeu;

Translation 4: canonical sentence

(Estimeu molt el pare,) l’encomano

a l’afecte que heu dit que li teníeu;

Translation 5: canonical sentence

(Tracteu bé el nostre pare:) l’encomano

a la tendresa que segons vosaltres

us inspira ...

Translation 6: canonical sentence

L’encomano als vostres cors devots, amb afecte.

Occurrence 9 → non-focus preposing

Cordelia Who covers faults, at last shame them derides. [277]

Translation 1: canonical sentence (different wording and structure)

Qualque jorn devindrà en que l’hipocresia serà confosa enfront de la vergonya.

Translation 2: left-dislocation

Als qui encobreixen falliments, a la fí los escarneix la vergonya.

Translation 3: left-dislocation

I qui amaga els defectes,

al final la vergonya els hi farà palesos.

Translation 4: left-dislocation

I qui amaga els defectes,

Al final la vergonya els hi farà palesos.

Translation 5: multiple dislocation: (subject) left-dislocation + cliticless left-dislocation (faulty)

qui amaga els seus errors,

de la vergonya acaba sent riota.

Translation 6: left-dislocation

De qui amaga les faltes la vergonya en fa denúncia.

Occurrence 10 → non-focus preposing

Regan Such unconstant starts are we like to have from him as this

Of Kent’s banishment. [293s.]

Translation 1: canonical sentence

No hi ha dubte que haurem de soportarli imprevistos cops de genit

com el que li ha fet exilar a Kent.

Translation 2: canonical sentence

Probablement ne rebrem promptes tan lleugers com lo de l’exili de Kent.

Translation 3: canonical sentence

Sembla que no podem esperar més que rampells

sobtats, com aquest de l’exili de Kent.

Translation 4: canonical sentence

Sembla que no podem esperar més que rampells

sobtats, com aquest de l’exili de Kent.

Translation 5: canonical sentence

Aquest rampell inesperat d’enviar Kent a l’exili

és molt probable que no sigui l’últim.

Translation 6: canonical sentence

Ens podem trobar més sortides com l’exili de Kent.

Online erschienen: 2014-11-14
Erschienen im Druck: 2014-11-1

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